Linking One WASH National Programme and Water Resources Management: UNICEF Ethiopia’s Leverage in the Sector

By Kaleab Getaneh and Jorge Alvarez-Sala

There is a high interdependence between Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services and Water Resources Management. A sustainable supply of good quality drinking water highly depends on how properly the water sources are managed. Similarly, if WASH services provision is not sustainably managed it will have a huge negative impact on the water resource.

The UNICEF and USAID supported project to strengthen the Water Sector Working Group (WSWG) Secretariat started in July 2015 with the aim of establishing a well-functioning platform for the water sector consisting of the WASH and Water Resources Management (WRM) subgroups that contribute to the sustainable development and management of the water resources in the country.

The project has been supporting the reactivation of the WRM Sub Group and the organization of the first-ever Joint Technical Review (JTR) for the WRM sub-sector. The main purpose of the JTR is to bring various stakeholders together and ensure a sustainable coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximise the economic and social welfare of the population. This is the basis for the ongoing and future water sector interventions in general and One WASH National Programme in particular.

Developing climate resilient sustainable WASH services under the umbrella of One WASH National Programme require looking into the bigger water resources management picture, including the protection of water sources and the overall water governance issues. To this end, the reactivation and capacitation of the WRM subgroup and the launching of the JTR is significantly contributing to the development of a clear and common agenda for the water resources sector in Ethiopia.

The WRM sub-group has been able to bring together three concerned Ministries: Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Electricity (MoWIE); Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Resources (MALR); and Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) and key development partners (DPs), academia and civil society organizations (CSOs).

The priorities established by the WRM sub-group include: 1.Irrigation for growth; 2.Legislation of groundwater use; 3. Conflict resolution; 4. Communication/Management Information System; 5. Institutional and Human Capacity; 6. Water quality; and 7. Water Charges/Tariff and Scheme Sustainability. Following the identification of the priority areas, six WRM technical working groups have been established to further pinpoint key bottlenecks and gaps.

Opening speech by H. E. Ato Kebede Gerba, the state Minister of MoWIE. © UNICEF Ethiopia/2018/Jorge Alvarez-Sala

On the 19th April 2018, the WRM JTR kick-off meeting was successfully held by involving more than 85 participants from academic institutions, CSOs, development partners, basin authorities, concerned federal ministries, and regional bureaus of water, environment and agriculture. The workshop was attended by H.E. Ato Kebede Gerba, the state Minister of MoWIE and H.E Ato Kare Chewicha, the state Minister of MoEFCC. It has laid the foundation by bringing the three ministries (MoWIE, MoEFCC and MoANR) together to talk about water resources management in the country.

 

Currently, the six working groups are actively organizing a field mission to review the state of WRM in three selected river basins (Awash River Basin, Rift Valley Lakes Basin and Abay River Basin) and come up with high impact implementable actions. The findings of the field mission will feed into the upcoming Multi Stakeholders Forum, which will bring both WASH and WRM subsectors together for the first time.

The whole process of JTR and MSF is expected to culminate in the preparation of a National WRM Programme document, which is currently being developed with technical and financial support from UNICEF.

UNICEF’s support to the Water Sector Working Group (WSWG), and its sub-groups is possible thanks to the generosity and support of USAID. The JTR kick-off meeting was also financially supported by JICA and the Italian Cooperation Agency.

In Ethiopia, Child Victims of Sexual Violence Communicate through Art Therapy

UNICEF and Government Communication Affairs Office Provide Training on Ending Violence Against Children

By Frehiwot Yilma

ADAMA, OROMIA REGION, 26 March 2018 – The explanation of the first picture immediately grabbed everyone’s attention in the room as psychologist Mekonnen Belete described how the child that drew it was showing that she had been abused by an uncle.

Here at the UNICEF-supported One-stop Centre in Adama Hospital in the Oromia region, counsellors are using a model adapted from the Thutuzela Care Centres of South Africa to provide timely and comprehensive medical and counselling services to victims of Violence Against Women and Children.

IMG_2972“Usually when children draw disfigured faces it indicates the people they are drawing are not very helpful. As you can see the woman’s mouth is wider than usual to indicate the woman (the child’s mother) was laughing at her when she told her of the abuse she experienced by the uncle who came from the rural areas indicated by the child in a form of a hut,” said Mekonnen, who noted that most of the children he counsels are abused by acquaintances, stepfathers and relatives.

The Adama One-stop Centre was introduced in 2013, the second to be established in Ethiopia after the centre in the Gandhi Hospital in the capital Addis Ababa and it has been successful in rehabilitating survivors as well as prosecuting the perpetrators by offering medical and legal services to victims of sexual violence. In the Oromia region, there are two other such centres in Shashemene and Jimma towns that were established and supported by UNICEF.

The centre is staffed by three prosecutors and four female investigative police officers. Clinical and counselling services are managed by a medical doctor, nurse and a psychologist provided by the hospital. Overall management of the centre is entrusted to the Justice Office, which coordinates through a multi-sectoral steering committee comprising, but not limited to, representatives from the Women, Children Affairs Office, the Health Office, the High/Woreda Court, the Adama Police Commission, the Education Office and selected child care institutions, showing how protecting women and children cannot be left to one party – everyone has a role to play. Concerted efforts bring tangible and sustainable change to ensure that not even one case is treated as the norm.

The second picture, in the sequence of the five pictures drawn by the child as she recovered from the trauma of the abuse by her uncle, is brighter than the first one but still has traces of uncertainty. According to Mekonnen, the flag in the picture indicates the medical and legal services she received. Until the girl gains confidence in these services, the flag remains at the side of the picture, showing her doubt about the system surrounding her.

Before the establishment of the One-stop Centre, victims of sexual violence were hidden for a number of reasons, including the families believing their children (especially if they accused family members), the stigma around sexual violence, blaming the victim, the lack of victim friendly services, denial that the actions took place and the difficulty of proving the abuse.

IMG_2975“The number of victims we support has been increasing from year to year,” said Inspector Etenesh Deresse of the Adama Police, the focal person for women and children cases. “This is not because children were not abused before, but people are now putting their trust in the confidentiality, speed, victim friendly and accuracy of the services provided in the centre. Now, parents and caregivers are bringing alleged reports (to us) just to make sure.”

UNICEF helped the Oromia Police College to revise its curriculum to include issues of violence against children as well as have courts include social workers on the government payroll. Currently, 40 courts have child-friendly benches and the One-stop Centre service has been scaled up from three to 17 hospitals in the region.

In the final picture the child drew, a new thought, the product of several counselling sessions, has emerged – hope for her and justice for her uncle. She was finally able to put herself in the picture and imagine and dream again.

IMG_2971When Mekonnen showed pictures drawn by children who were not abused, the difference in the attitude and aspirations was evident. Those who were not abused were able to write about the subjects they were learning, draw their house or a landscape in a free and lively way, but the ones with some trace of abuse tend to focus on one particular aspect of their life and sometimes were not even be able to depict that.

UNICEF has provided critical support to improve child justice in Ethiopia by providing equipment, supplies and capacity building trainings to the centres as well as other child friendly services such as child friendly courts, child protection units and justice offices in different regions. UNICEF works with the bureau of justice, Women and Children Affairs, the Supreme Court and police to prevent violence against children.

Sweden contributes US$ 3 million to UNICEF’s 2018 humanitarian appeal for children in Ethiopia

30 April 2018, Addis Ababa: The Government of Sweden has provided US$3 million to UNICEF Ethiopia’s 2018 Humanitarian Action for Children. The funds will be used to meet the needs of internally displaced populations in the Oromia and Somali regions of Ethiopia.

“We are grateful to the Government of Sweden for this contribution, which confirms Sweden’s continued commitment to supporting populations affected by humanitarian emergencies,” said UNICEF Representative Gillian Mellsop. “This is the first such significant contribution to our funding appeal in 2018. It will enable us to alleviate the hardships currently faced by populations living in IDP sites where access to basic services remains low and where conditions, especially for children, are simply unbearable.”

Current estimates place the number of persons internally displaced by climatic and conflict factors at around 1.7 million. The displaced are settled in 916 sites across the country.

The contribution from Sweden will enable UNICEF to provide critical and much-needed water and sanitation, nutrition, and health services to displaced populations in the two regions. Other services will include education and child protection.

Specifically, Sweden’s support will go towards:

  • Trucking of water to IDP sites and construction or expansion of water supply systems;
  • Diarrhoea treatment, vaccination of children against measles, and distribution of mosquito nets;
  • Treatment of children with acute malnutrition and provision of high protein biscuits to prevent malnutrition in children and pregnant and lactating women;
  • Provision of emergency education, including early childhood development;
  • Reunification of separated and unaccompanied children with their families and preventing and mitigating risks faced by children, especially girls.

While the Government continues to prioritize the return and resettlement of the IDPs, thousands of displaced people are still in need of urgent life-saving assistance. UNICEF’s US$ 112 million humanitarian appeal for children targets 3.1 million people with support, out of which 1.5 million are children. Presently, the appeal has a shortfall of US$ 86 million, with nutrition, health, and education having the most significant gaps.

EU and UNICEF launch a photo book on the success story of reducing malnutrition in Ethiopia

25 April 2018, HAWASSA – Today, the European Union (EU) and UNICEF launched a photo book entitled “Ending malnutrition in Ethiopia – A SUCCESS STORY” which illustrates Ethiopia’s success story in ending malnutrition, through the voices, stories and images of Ethiopians.

The nutrition photo book launch and photo exhibition held in the presence of Dr Abreham Alano, Head of the SNNP Regional Health Bureau, H.E Ambassador Johan Borgstam, Head of the European Union Delegation to Ethiopia, Ms Gillian Mellsop, UNICEF Representative to Ethiopia and other key stakeholders from the Government and other partners is a celebration of the success achieved so far in the reduction of malnutrition in Ethiopia while advocating for continued multi-sectoral efforts since malnutrition among children and women in Ethiopia remains a major concern.

It is also a celebration of how Ethiopia has managed to sustain improvements in nutrition, yet also a reminder of all the work that needs to be done to ensure everyone enjoys optimal nutrition.

On the occasion, Dr Abreham Alano, Head of the SNNP Regional Health Bureau thanked the EU and UNICEF for their support in results gained thus far in reducing stunting and  malnutrition, on the health care utilization as well as maternal and child mortality reduction and urged them to continue their support until the targeted results are achieved.

Ambassador Johan Borgstam, Head of EU delegation to Ethiopia on his part said, “It is an honour for me to open this photo book and exhibition launching event today on a topic of malnutrition which is a priority of both the Government of Ethiopia and of the EU’s development cooperation policy. Malnutrition is not only a major health problem affecting children and adults in partner countries, it also has important economic and social dimensions challenging their development by deteriorating the well-being of their entire population.”

Ethiopia has experienced rapid and sustained improvements in nutrition during the past 15 years. For instance, the country has seen a steady reduction in stunting – the fastest rate of improvement in Africa – as well as a significant decline in the percentage of underweight and wasted children. Yet, Ethiopia remains in a precarious situation, with large absolute numbers of affected children: 5 million children are stunted and 1.3 million children under five suffer wasting.

“I would like to highlight the importance of long-term investments to ensure that progress is sustained in ending malnutrition in Ethiopia. While the achievements we recognize today are indeed a success story, we cannot afford to rest on our laurels. Undernutrition still remains a challenge and it requires us all to redouble our efforts to ensure that every child enjoys better health and nutrition,” said Ms Gillian Mellsop, UNICEF Representative to Ethiopia. With the Government’s leadership and the strong commitment of partners, this goal is achievable. Let’s walk together with the same single-minded determination, zeal, and focus to end undernutrition in Ethiopia.”

To further reduce these numbers, the EU has provided €10,000,000 to support vulnerable populations in 17 woredas (districts) in Oromia, SNNP and Amhara regions of Ethiopia through a project entitled “Multi-sectoral interventions to improve nutrition security and strengthen resilience.” This joint action plan which is being implemented by UNICEF and FAO aims to contribute to the improvement of nutritional status of children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women using the life cycle approach.

Survivors of FGM facilitate discussions to end the practice

By Martha Tadesse

Fatuma learned about the impacts of FGM/C after her first delivery and refused to have her daughters go through the same procedure.

Chifra, Afar, 23 January 2018 – “I had severe period pain, and my labour was a life and death situation,” says Fatuma Abdu, 28, who had undergone Type III FGM/C as a child. Fatuma has two daughters, a 4–year-old and a 20-months-old.

She recalls her first pregnancy experience saying, “I was very weak during my first pregnancy. I was in labour for 24 hours before they took me to the hospital. I gave birth at the hospital. However, because of our tradition, I have stitched again. My menstrual cycle pain was agonizing. I got pregnant again, and it was worse than my first experience. I was in labour for three days until I was unconscious and found myself at Mille Maternity hospital.

The doctor told me I would have suffered from fistula had I stayed home longer than that. I had a stillbirth.  I was physically and emotionally hurt. My third pregnancy was much better because of the surgery at the hospital.”

Zahara Mohammod, 28 discusses about FGM/C with “Unmarried Adolescent Girls’ Club” at Mille Woreda, Afar. © UNICEF Ethiopia /2018/Tadesse

Fatuma learned about the impacts of FGM/C after her first delivery and refused to have her daughters go through the same procedure. She explains how it was difficult to convince her husband on her decision saying, because “The day I went through all that because of my FGM/C procedure was the same day I made that decision. My husband disagreed because we had always thought we were right to practice FGM/C. Mind you, even though he knew how much I have suffered, he still could not make up his mind. I told him I would sue anyone who would touch my daughters and that was it.”

The UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme has been working in collaboration with Bureau of Women and Children Affairs (BoWCA) to accelerate the abandonment of FGM/C in Afar region since November 2008. During the implementation of its first phase that ended in 2013, the programme targeted six districts out of the 32 districts in the region, which have declared abandonment of FGM/C presently.

According to the assessment made at the end of this first phase, the programme has resulted in substantial changes in belief and practice of FGM/C in target districts, with a practice decline from 90 per cent in 2008 to 39 per cent after five years of intervention. The second phase of the programme is currently implementing social mobilization interventions in three districts with the aim of improving community knowledge, attitude and practice. The programme heavily focuses on the engagement of community and religious leaders who are the most influential persons in the community. Additionally, the programme promotes community conversations through various discussion groups to create awareness and empower community members for a lasting change.

Fatuma is among the trainers who have been selected to facilitate discussion groups in their communities. The UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme has trained 176 facilitators for community conversation and dialogue from 3 districts on FGM/C and early marriage. This community conversation and dialogue on FGM/C is inclusive of girls, boys, men, women, and the youth in the community.

“I hope everyone listens to our suffering and refuses to undergo the FGM/C procedure.”

Sharing her experiences with the training, Fatuma states, “The training was such an eye-opener. I was challenged regarding my wrong beliefs, and it helped me speak up for others.”

According to Sheikh Mohammod Dersa, President of the Islamic Affairs Supreme Council in Afar, the FGM/C intervention by UNFPA-UNICEF has brought a behavioural change in the community.

He states, “We are grateful for what UNFPA and UNICEF have done in our region. We have been working with them hand in hand. But, we still need to work harder, because the issue is deeply rooted in social and religious norms. Social norms are powerful. We need to know that this is a generational issue, as well. It takes a lot of effort and collaboration to challenge communities and achieve the goal of ending FGM/C. We are always ready to teach our community, and we hope the programme continues and expands to other districts.”

Against all Odds, South Sudanese Refugees find a way to access education

By Amanda Westfall

On 19 December, 2017, Nyawal John, a South Sudanese 17-year-old girl says that her goal in life is to be educated. After escaping conflict in her village in South Sudan, she is doing whatever it takes to access education in Ethiopia.

Their villages are ravaged as they flee conflict and leave family, livelihoods and education behind. They travel for months, sometimes without food, water, or shelter, to arrive in a new country that offers the basic services required for survival. But when the South Sudanese people spend year after year waiting for the conflict in their country to subside, the time keeps ticking on their education.

Nyawal John, 17, who arrived in Tsore Refugee camp in Benishangul-Gumuz, Ethiopia two years ago, has gone almost three years without formal education. As a young teen, she had to leave almost everything behind in South Sudan – even her parents, who she hasn’t heard from since fleeing, not knowing if they are alive today or not.

Tsore Refugee Settlement offers pre-primary and primary school, but unfortunately, there is currently no secondary school available for Nyawal who says that she should be attending 9th grade right now.

But this did not stop Nyawal in her ambitions for education. She first started working as a translator at the camp health centre. However, she felt detached from education so decided to be a teacher in the camp’s pre-primary school, which is where she is currently working.

At the school, she teaches a total of 85 four-year-old children each day where she is exposed to new UNICEF-supported teaching and learning materials and capacity building programmes. She is able to use the various skills and materials to improve her teaching and also help her gain new knowledge for her own educational growth.

The main thing Nyawal wants right now is to learn. “I need to get knowledge. In the future what I want is to finish my education … If there is a place in my country for this I will be there. But iff it is here, I will be here.”

Nyawal dreams of being a computer scientist one day. When she was a young teenager in South Sudan, her father bought her a computer from Rwanda, which she cherished and managed to carry with her as she fled to Ethiopia. Unfortunately, because of financial needs she had to sell it once she arrived. Still, she has managed to continue practising by going to Tsore’s Administration for Refugee and Returnee Affairs office weekly to use their computers.

Education for Refugee and Host Community Children Benishangu-Gumuz, Ethiopia
Education for Refugee and Host Community Children in Tsore Zone pre school Benishangu-Gumuz, Ethiopia Tsore Zone A Pre School, Assosa. © UNICEF Ethiopia /2017/Tadesse

From site to site in the camp there is an ardent yearn for education. Kemal Olika, an Ethiopian teacher in the refugee primary school in the camp says it best, “Without any training and just by their confidence, they [refugee teachers] still teach and strive for education. I appreciate them. Even the [refugee] students’ respect is very high. South Sudanese respect the teachers. They listen. They really want to learn.”

At the settlement, UNICEF supports the refugee children’s aspirations for education. Through an integration programme with the host-Ethiopian communities, UNICEF supports teacher training programmes and extra-curricular activities including; materials and equipment for sport, play and learning – so that refugees can benefit from their host country’s education system. In addition, UNICEF supports the construction of new classrooms to ease the congestion in schools and advocates for construction of secondary schools for older students, like Nyawal.

When forced away from everything she knows – her home, parents, schooling, and cherished computer – against all the odds, Nyawal continues to strive for education.

Canada partners with UNICEF to improve reproductive health and nutrition among adolescent girls in Ethiopia

8 March 2018, ADDIS ABABA – On the occasion of International Women’s Day, the Government of Canada is pleased to provide CDN$ 14.8 million (US$ 12 million) to UNICEF Ethiopia to improve the reproductive health and nutritional status of adolescent girls. The initiative will reach over four million girls in districts with high food insecurity and a high prevalence of child marriage. It will be implemented between 2018 and 2022.

“As part of our feminist approach, Canada is committed to advancing sexual and reproductive health and rights in order to empower women and adolescent girls in Ethiopia and around the world,” says Ivan Roberts, Head of Cooperation at the Embassy of Canada in Ethiopia.

In Ethiopia, 25 per cent of the population is made up of adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years), of which 11 million are girls.  Adolescent girls experience numerous barriers that hinder them from fully realizing their potential. A significant portion of these barriers is related to their sexual and reproductive health and to their nutrition.

Canada’s contribution will help girls access adolescent-friendly sexual and reproductive health services and nutrition facilities by training health workers to clearly understand the physiological and psychological needs of adolescent girls. This initiative will also leverage gender clubs in schools to provide life skills and sexual and reproductive health knowledge to young people. In addition, adolescent-friendly spaces will be created to ensure out-of-school children freely discuss nutrition and sexual and reproductive health issues and practices including family planning.

To improve personal hygiene, the programme will support the local production and supply of sanitary pads, education of girls on pre- and post menstruation, improve sanitary facilities through upgrading and rehabilitation, provide spaces in schools for menstruating girls to rest, enhance counselling and peer-to-peer support, and promote informal discussions among girls on issues that concern them.

“We appreciate the timely support from the Government of Canada which will allow us to address the challenges that Ethiopian adolescent girls face today,” says Gillian Mellsop, UNICEF Representative in Ethiopia. “We believe that this contribution will help adolescent girls break out of discriminatory social and gender norms that hamper their education and hinder their ability to meaningfully contribute to their nation’s development.”

UNICEF will use its strong monitoring and evaluation tools to ensure the success of this programme and invest in regular compilation of health and nutrition data to better understand trends and uptake of services by adolescent girls.