Trilateral South-South Partnership in Water Supply and Sanitation kicked off

 

South-South cooperation High Level Seminar on Urban WASH and River Basin Management.
Group photo of South-South Cooperation High Level Seminar participants on Urban WASH and River Basin Management, 20 January 2015, Hilton Hotel, Addis Ababa.©UNICEF Ethiopia/2015/Ayene

ADDIS ABABA, 20 January 2015: Today, the Government of Ethiopia organized a high level event to launch a two year South-South cooperation programme between the Governments of Brazil and Ethiopia on water supply and sanitation in Addis Ababa.

Present on the occasion were H.E. Alemayehu Tegenu, Federal Minister of Water, Irrigation and Energy, H.E Kebede Gerba, State Minister of Water, Irrigation and Energy, Ms. Meseret Yetube, Director of Primary Health Services and Health Extension Programme at the Federal Ministry of Health, H.E. Ms. Isabel Cristina de Azevedo Heyvaert, Ambassador of Brazil to Ethiopia, Ms. Angela Spilsbury, Senior Health Advisor of DFID, delegates from Brazilian Government and members of the media.

The high level mission from Brazil comprised of a nine- person delegation to introduce innovative approaches to accelerate the One WASH national programme and address the three pending challenges namely urban sanitation, urban water regulation and watershed management.

His Excellency Alemaneyu Tegenu, Minister of Water, Irrigation and Energy and Chairman of the National WASH Steering Committee in Ethiopia began his keynote address by congratulating the Brazilian delegation who travelled a long journey from South America to attend the inception mission for the South-South cooperation programme. He also thanked the Government of Brazil for letting Ethiopian experts visit exemplary reality in their country within the urban WASH to learn from successful models for the development of Ethiopian towns.

H.E. Ms. Isabel Cristina de Azevedo Heyvaert, Ambassador of Brazil to Ethiopia on her part revealed, “This meeting is one of the main benchmarks of my five year term of office as an Ambassador given its strategic importance for the economy and social development. I really consider this to be chance to participate in a meaningful way of the improvement of the quality of life of people and especially women and children, the most vulnerable beings in the society.”

In September 2014, UNICEF Brazil and UNICEF Ethiopia with the financial support from DFID organized a high level delegation to Brazil led by the State Ministers of Health and Water, Irrigation and Energy. The objective of the mission was to get insights on how Brazil has advanced in providing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in urban areas given its rapid urbanization in the last 50 years, which reduced significantly child mortality. During this mission, the government delegates were impressed by the advances made in managing fecal, solid and liquid waste management in small and medium sized towns. Additionally, they learnt how effective regulation can ensure that low income families and marginalised households in urban areas are able to receive affordable water supply.

South-South cooperation High Level Seminar on Urban WASH and River Basin Management.
Ms. Anupama Rao Singh, UNICEF representative a.i. to Ethiopia giving a keynote speech at the South-South Cooperation High Level Seminar on Urban WASH and River Basin Management, 20 January 2015, Hilton Hotel, Addis Ababa. ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2015/Ayene

Ms. Anupama Rao Singh, Acting UNICEF Representative to Ethiopia on her part said, “UNICEF is looking at different technology options, and with the support of the Brazilian experts, we intend to pilot small scale, condominium, sewerage systems which can better fit the needs of small and medium towns in the country. In addition, UNICEF is supporting the development of the Urban Sanitation and Hygiene policy for a more efficient and coordinated efforts in making Ethiopian towns greener and healthier for women and children and the population at large.”

Through the DFID financed One WASH plus programme, UNICEF has been requested by the Government of Ethiopia to lead the development of a national integrated urban sanitation strategy. The South-South collaboration with Brazil will provide expert inputs to enable the finalisation of this strategy.

Ms. Angela Spilsbury, Senior Health Advisor of DFID announced that the UK Government will provide 106 million euros over the next five years to the One WASH national programme out of which, 22 million will be given to UNICEF to address the needs of women and girls in relation to water and sanitation, enhancing the engagement of the private sector and linking water resources management to climate resilience.

“Ethiopia would like to emphasize on enhancing partnership and development such as this since a national strategy on integrated urban sanitation and hygiene is being developed and hopefully ratified very soon”, said Ms. Meseret Yetube, Director of Primary Health Services and Health Extension Programme at the Federal Ministry of Health. “In line with this, the exchange visit we have been doing will definitely benefit our countries not only in the WASH sector but also in other walks of life”, she added.

The delegation from Brazil will visit four regions of Ethiopia in three teams. The first team will visit Adama and Gonder in Oromia and Amhara regions respectively and will focus on the establishment of independent water regulation for urban settlements. The second team, led by Dr. Samuel Godfrey, Chief of Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in UNICEF Ethiopia, will visit Tigray with the objective of establishing a “technology transfer” of condominium sewerage for high density population areas. And a third team will visit the Awash basin in the Afar Region to exchange ideas on water resources management. The output of this visit will be a two year collaboration on Water Supply and Sanitation sector between the Governments of Ethiopia and Brazil.

South-South cooperation is a term used by policymakers and academics to describe the exchange of resources, technology, and knowledge between developing countries, also known as countries of the global South. Over the past decade, Brazil´s South-South cooperation with Africa has been growing rapidly and this represents an exemplary initiative of trilateral agreement between the Governments of Brazil and Ethiopia with the support of UNICEF.

 

Global Hand washing Day (GHD) 2014 celebrated in Oromia, Ethiopia

By Kulule Mekonnen

Kimbibit woreda community welcomes participants of Global Handwashing Day participants colourfully with their decorated horses
Kimbibit woreda community welcomes participants of Global Handwashing Day participants colourfully with their decorated horses ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2014/ Sewunet

Hundreds of people marked Global Hand Washing Day with a colourful celebration at Garachatu School in Kimbibit woreda, Oromia region.

The region has been celebrating Global Hand Washing day since 2008, which was International Year of Sanitation.

Community members travelled to the event on foot and on horseback, wearing colourful traditional clothes to welcome government officials and invited guests to the celebrations.

The event is marked in many countries every year to underline the importance of handwashing in the prevention of common but potentially lethal diseases such as diarrohea, pneumonia, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Ebola and others.

The event at Garatchu School included the reading of poems by students, songs and performances, focusing on the importance of handwashing.

Dr Zelalem Habtamu, Deputy Head of the Oromia Regional Health Bureau, said: “We believe that we could prevent over 60 % of communicable diseases by implementing proper environmental health interventions. This is why we focus on advocating proper hand washing practices at critical times.’’

Oromia has made solid progress in improving hygiene, deploying 13,000 health extension workers and 4.5 million health development armies. These are small groups of women that meet regularly to discuss and solve issues relating to public health, socio-economic, environmental and economic concerns.

Students of Garachatu School perform a play on the importance of handwashing
Students of Garachatu School perform a play on the importance of handwashing at the Global Handwashing Day celebration ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2014/Sewunet

Dr. Zelalem added: “We are celebrating this year’s GHD in Garachatu School, with the school community and their families, with the intention of reaching every family, as we believe that students could carry on the positive hand washing behaviours learnt at schools with their families and their neighbourhood.”

Hand washing with soap removes germs from hands, preventing the transmission of infections when people touch their eyes, nose or mouth. It can also prevent germs getting into food and drink, as often happens when they are prepared by people with unclean hands. These germs can then multiply, risking the spread of infection to more people.

Germs from unwashed hands can also be transferred to objects like handrails, table tops or toys and spread easily.

Removing germs through proper hand washing helps prevent diarrhoea and respiratory infections and may also help prevent skin and eye infections.

Research shows that community hand washing education has a number of hygiene benefits. It reduces cases of diarrhoea by 31 percent, diarrheic illness in people with weakened immune systems by 58 percent and respiratory illnesses, such as colds, in the general population by 21 percent.

Figures released recently by UNICEF and the World Health Organisation show that in 2013 more than 340,000 children under five – almost 1,000 a day – died from diarrheic diseases due to lack of safe water, sanitation and basic hygiene. As the Ebola response takes its toll on the health services in the affected countries, the practice of hand washing is even more important to prevent these common diseases.

Participants washes their hands at the Global Hand washing Day celebration in Garachatu School, Kimbibit woreda of Oromia region, Ethiopia.
Participants wash their hands at the Global Hand washing Day celebration in Garachatu School, Kimbibit woreda of Oromia region, Ethiopia ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2014/Sewunet

UNICEF works with regional government and non-governmental organisations to improve access to safe drinking water, sanitation and healthy environments and better hygiene practices.

It also focuses on capacity building to eliminate open defecation and improve hand-washing facilities in schools and health centres, focusing on the needs of girls.

W/ro Zewuditu Areda, Head of the North Shewa Zonal Health Department, said: “Proper hand washing prevents disease and saves lives, hence hands should be properly washed.”

The event ended with a demonstration of 10 steps of proper hand washing by Belay Techane, a Kimbibit Woreda Health Worker. The steps include:

  • First hand should be rinsed and wet
  • Apply soap and thoroughly scrub hands and forearms up to elbow. Give special attention to scrubbing your nails and the space between your fingers
  • Rinse with generous amount of clean water flowing
  • Air-dry with your hands up and elbows facing the ground, so that water drips away from your hands and fingers
  • After the demonstration, all participants of the day practiced proper hand washing using soap as demonstrated by the health worker.

In Ethiopia, Danish diplomats observe progress in child protection

The Danish Government has been providing support to the Justice for Children programme, through UNICEF Ethiopia, since June 2007. On June 20, 2014, the Danish Ambassador to Ethiopia, Mr Stephan Schønemann, and the Deputy Head of Mission, Mrs Lotte Machon, visited Adama to gain an insight into the Child Protection services provided to women and children.

The Child-Friendly Justice Programme is designed and implemented by governmental and non-governmental partner organisations, with technical and financial support from UNICEF. At governmental level, the Programme is jointly coordinated and implemented by the Federal Supreme Court, the Federal Ministry of Justice, and regional supreme courts and bureaus of justice, in close collaboration with institutions involved in the justice, health, social and education sectors, as well as civil society organisations.

At the Adama zonal police station, the visitors met with Inspector Shitu Likisa and Ms Welansa Negash – focal persons of the Child Protection Unit (CPU) for the Oromia Region and the Adama zonal police station, respectively. They explained the objectives and processes of the CPU, as well as the challenges faced in the day-to-day work.

The Child Protection Unit aims to improve the treatment of children by law enforcement organs, whilst ensuring alternatives to custodial measures in the treatment of young offenders. It was established within the compounds of the Adama town police station, as a separate block close to the outside gates. The CPU contains three furnished rooms, which are used for the investigation of cases, as well as providing distinct temporary accommodation, including toilet facilities, separately for boys and girls. It is staffed by one female police officer and one social worker, the latter of which is also responsible for the child friendly bench and child friendly court at the Adama High Court. The police officer was provided with specialised training on the legal, operational and psychological aspects of the work.

Mr. Stephan Schønemann, Ambassador of the Royal Danish Embassy discussing with Ato Bojja Taddesse, Oromia Supreme Court Vice President

Despite UNICEF’s investments into the CPU, in the form of training and stationary, as well as the renovation and furnishing of both the investigation rooms and accommodation, there are still remaining gaps to be filled.

“When we find or receive very young children who need our support, we do not have a dedicated place for them to stay. Either myself or other police officers take the babies home because they need food and special care,” Welansa explains. “Also, feeding the children who are in our care is a big issue, as there is no budget allocated for this.”

Adama is a big town, with a large population of children. Some come by themselves to seek work or a better quality of life, but many are brought by brokers and child traffickers. The Adama community is well aware of the CPU and, through their active engagement, children are brought in to be assisted by the Family Tracing and Reunification Services or social workers, and possibly directed to legal and/or medical aid.

“Presently, we have one boy in our care. He came from the Tigray Region with his older brother, who was depriving him of food and beating him. The young boy, who is about 11 years old, ran away and ended up alone on the streets,” the police officer continued. “He came to our unit and now we are helping to take him back to his family – that is his wish.”

Since the unit opened, they have helped around 570 children to reunite with their families.

Children in contact with the law are provided with a safe sleeping space and special treatment, without having to mix with adult offenders. Their parents are immediately contacted, and both the social worker and police officer (female officer) provide counselling and investigation. This results in a decision either for release into the care of their parents/guardians; referral to the community-based diversion programme or to present them to the child friendly bench. Psychosocial services, in the form of counselling, shelter, medical care etc, are provided to child victims and alleged offenders using the referral pathway that was made operational in the town with the support of UNICEF.

The next place visited by the team, accompanied by UNICEF staff members, was the OneStop Centre, located at the Adama Referral Hospital. The One Stop Centre was introduced in 2013 and aims to provide timely and comprehensive legal, medical and counselling services to survivors of violence, thereby minimising secondary victimisation. It also facilitates the proper collection and preservation of evidence, leading to improved rates of prosecution and conviction, and a reduction in the cycle time for finalising cases on violence against women and children (VAWC).The Centre was set up inside the premises of the Adama Referral Hospital in a secluded block, in order to maintain the privacy of beneficiaries. The Centre is staffed by four prosecutors and four female investigation police officers who work on a rotational basis. Clinical and counselling services are managed by a medical doctor, nurse and psychiatrist, who are deployed by the Hospital. The overall management of the Centre is entrusted to top level inter-agency team, comprising of representatives from the Regional Bureau of Justice; the Regional Bureau of Women, Children and Youth Affairs; the Regional Bureau of Health; the Regional Supreme Court and the Regional Police Commission.

“This centre deals with about one to two cases per day and, by deploying female police officers, we prevent the victims from secondary victimisation,” explains Zewdu Mulugeta, prosecutor at the Bureau of Justice, Adama

One of the recent cases to come to this office was the attempted rape of a five-year-old girl. The perpetrator was given a 14-year prison sentence.

Equipped with new knowledge and insights about the functioning of the One-Stop Centre, the Danish diplomats were taken to the Adama High Court to visit the Child Friendly Benches (for both child victims and alleged child offenders). Here, Emebet Hailu, a social worker, explained the functioning of the Child-friendly Bench, which was established inside the premises of the Adama Zonal Court to adjudicate cases involving child victims and witnesses, as well as alleged child offenders. The initiative entails a specially designed and well-equipped courtroom, which hears cases involving child victims and witnesses of violence. This includes the added security of close-circuit cameras. The separate room is specially designed in a child-friendly setting, in order to put children at ease and provide testimony without facing the alleged perpetrator. The child sitting in the special room is assisted by an intermediary, transmitting the questions forwarded from the main courtroom to the child and the responses of the child are then transmitted back to the courtroom. The sessions are closed, with only a selected audience allowed to take part in the proceedings. The Child-friendly Bench aims to protect child and women victims of sexual violence from secondary victimisation during the judicial process and to enable them to give their testimonies freely and comfortably in a child-sensitive environment.

In the case of alleged child offenders, the child-friendly bench has a unique courtroom setting, which is adapted to simulate environments familiar to the children in schools and with families. Instead of the raised platform and assigned positions for judges, the prosecution and the accused, everyone sits around the same table. In addition to the child-friendly physical setting, the hearing process is managed in an informal and non-adversarial atmosphere, avoiding the use of technical language and the wearing of robes by judges, prosecutors and legal representatives.

Children who appear before the special bench and police units, and require family tracing, reunification and reintegration services are identified and referred to the Regional Bureau of Women, Children and Youth Affairs (BOWCYA).

A child plays in child friendly bench in Adama high court

At the High Court, the visiting team met and discussed with the Vice-President of the Regional Supreme Court, the President of Adama High Court, the Adama University, who provide free legal aid, and the child friendly justice steering Committee. Mr Schønemann also had the opportunity to discuss with male and female litigants in the court. A father explained how the Court had helped him to gain custody over his three eldest children and that now he is trying to obtain custody over his youngest, who is under five years of age and still with the mother.

There was also the disheartening case of a woman, who came with her 17year-old daughter and new-born granddaughter. The daughter was raped by the landlord of her family home and gave birth to a child as a result. The perpetrator intimidated the girl not to implicate him within the incident. Both the mother and grandmother of the new-born child are terrified, but sued the perpetrator for the cost of a DNA test to prove that he is the father and therefore required to pay maintenance for his child. The DNA test is very costly – about ETB 3000 (US$ 180) for women. The family is poor and does not have the funds to pay for this. Through the service provided by the Court, they are now trying to put in an application for DNA testing.

The Ambassador thanked the Court staff and partners for their important work and addressed the questions raised on capacity development and additional resource allocation to bridge existing gaps and strengthen the child justice system.

As a result of UNICEF’s partnership with the Regional Supreme Court, the Regional Police Commission and the Regional Bureau of Justice, the Child Protection Unit (CPU) and the child friendly benches in Adama Town were further expanded into six other towns in the Oromia Region – Sabata, Sululta,Wolisso,Jimma, Nekemte and Ambo) in 2013. Presently, UNICEF is supporting seven zones in the Oromia Region; and, while this is a good start, the expansion of child friendly justice services into additional zonal and woreda (district) towns is recommended. In addition, UNICEF highlights that the next steps will focus on the provision of in-service training to newly assigned justice and social welfare personnel; the strengthening of legal aid services managed by the university legal aid clinic; the strengthening of the community based diversion facility and improvements to the child justice data management system.

Divergent Journeys – Child Marriage and Education

 By Indrias Getachew

Famia Abadir and Rasso Abdella are teenage girls living in Sheneni Village of Dujuma Kebele, located 20 kilometers outside of Dire Dawa town in Eastern Ethiopia. They both share dreams of attending university and working as professionals to advance the rights of girls and women. To succeed, however, they must overcome substantial hurdles. Poverty, traditional views on gender roles and the practice of child marriage threatens to derail their ambitions. Their experiences illustrate some of the challenges that girls, particularly in rural areas, face as they strive to achieve their right to an education.

“No one told me to go to school,” recalls Rasso. “I used to spend my time in the hills with my friends shepherding goats. Some of my friends went to school in the mornings. They would write what that they had learnt in school on stones using charcoal. They would write the alphabet and when they asked me what ‘A’ is, I didn’t know. I told them that I wanted to go to school but I couldn’t afford to buy books. They agreed to share their books with me. That is how I was able to start school. I now go up the mountain to collect wood and prepare charcoal. I then go to town and sell it so I can buy my exercise books – that is how I am able to go to school.”

Kerima Ali, Gender and AIDS Expert at the Dire Dawa Bureau of Education (left) Famia Abadir (midle) and Rasso Abdela (right)
Kerima Ali, Gender and AIDS Expert at the Dire Dawa Bureau of Education (left) Famia Abadir (midle) and Rasso Abdela (right) ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2014Getachew

Overcoming economic hurdles is a challenge facing rural girls in their efforts to learn, however, the age-old practice of child marriage complicates things further.

In 2011, the dire warning by a rural religious leader that girls who didn’t marry that year would not be able to marry for the next seven years, set off a spate of child marriages that resulted in over 80 girls marrying and dropping out of Dujuma Primary School. Famia, 15 at the time, was one of them.

“I was a young student, still a child,” recalls Famia. “I was going to study with my friends and my cousin told me to come to her place as the elders were gathering there because she was going to get married. She took me from my home and handed me over to her uncle’s son to get me married to him. I did not want to get married. My wish was to go to school and learn, but they abducted and raped me and that is considered marriage. I had no choice.”

Famia Abadir, nine months pregnant
Famia Abadir, nine months pregnant ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2014/Getachew

Famia missed an entire year of school after she was abducted and raped, twice, in what turned out to be failed attempts to marry her against her will and the consent of her parents.

The events in Dujuma in 2011 led to a focused campaign of awareness creation and community mobilisation to end the practice of early marriage. Community discussions aimed at convincing community members about the importance of girls’ education were carried out throughout rural Dire Dawa. Awareness was also raised about the harm caused by child marriages with a view to fostering a consensus to end the practice.

Currently, school clubs are promoting gender equality and empowering the school community to respond in time to prevent child marriages through coordination with local government. Elders and religious leaders are also being engaged to convince the community to abandon the practice of early marriage.

According to local authorities, the efforts to end the practice of early marriage in Dujuma and other rural districts of the Dire Dawa Administrative Region have been successful. Indeed, Dire Dawa has the second lowest regional child marriage rate in Ethiopia after Addis Ababa. The practice is far more widespread in Amhara, Tigray and Benishangul Regions (EDHS 2011).

Transforming age-old customs, however, takes time. Returning to Dujuma in 2013, we found Famia to be nine months pregnant. Famia had left her husband and was once again living with her parents.

“After I give birth I will leave the baby with my family and return to my studies,” says Famia. “Getting married is what did this to me so it is better that I go back to school. Marriage was not good for me.”

Rasso, on the other hand, evaded all pressure to get married and was able to finish eighth grade at Dujuma Primary. Today, she is enrolled in high school in Dire Dawa town, living at the Girls’ Hostel set up by the Dire Dawa Bureau of Education with UNICEF’s support. The hostel enables girls from rural communities with no access to school to continue with their education.

Abduction survivor Gelane Degefa is clear where her priorities lay 

By Elshadai Negash

February 1st 2012 was supposed to be a regular school day for then-15 year old Gelane Degefa*. She started her day in Lugiatebela village, Sebeta Awas district, Oromia region, 25kms from the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa; early by making a 30min journey to kick off the day with biology lessons in high school. Three more one-hour classes later, the school day was over and she was on her way home when she spotted a familiar, but disturbing sight from a distance.

“It was Kebede Chala,” she says of her neighbour who had dropped out of school a few years ago to work on his parents’ farm. “I knew immediately that I was in trouble.”

Kebede had persistently courted Degefa for more than 18 months before formally approaching her parents a year earlier to ask for her hand in marriage. “He used to say things like ‘what good would school be for you. I would provide you with everything if you marry me’,” she says. “I told him [Kebede] that I was too young to get married. My parents repeated the same thing when he asked them as well, but he refused to let go. My friends had overheard of his plans to abduct me. I told this to our headmaster. When he heard about this, he stopped bothering me for a while.”

A few minutes later, Kebede  and five of his friends grabbed her and tried their best to stifle her screams. “It was one of the worst days of my life,” she recalls. “But I was very fortunate. It was harvest collection season and some farmers heard my screams and came running to rescue me after we travelled for about 5km. When he and his friends were surrounded by the farmers, they ran away and I was able to escape.”

A Saudi returnee waits in the scorching heat to hop on a transport to take her back to her home area
Picture not related to story

But her aggressor did not stop then. “A few weeks later, he sent elders to my school to complain that we were preventing him from marrying Aleme,” says Beyene Kebede, Degefa’s Chemistry teacher. “Our school director reported this to the police. They gave us hope and told us to inform them if there are any incidents involving Mosisa. He did not bother her from then on and she has been attending school this year without any problems.”

Degefa was not the first girl Kebede tried to abduct and force into early marriage. “He tried to abduct my friend Mergia Abebe, a girl I personally worked hard to convince her parents to allow her to go to school,” says Degefa, who is a member of the Girls Club at her school. “Her parents tried to get marry her to Mosisa, but we worked very hard to convince her to change their mind. She was in the second grade then, now she is a top student and just earned top marks when progressing to grade six.”

By “we”, Degefa is talking about a youth club supported by UNICEF to assist highly vulnerable children and prevent the abduction of school girls. Part of a five-year joint programme with UNICEF and the United Nations Fund for Populations Activities (UNFPA) and funded by the Royal Norwegian Embassy (RNE) to Ethiopia, the rights-based approach to adolescents and youth development in Ethiopia has worked to prevent girls like Degefa and Abebe from getting married early after abduction and in some cases stopped marriages after parents had agreed to marry to children to abductors.

“Abduction is a major harmful traditional practice in our area,” says Abegaz Tadesse, UNICEF/UNFPA Joint Programme coordinator in the Sebeta Awas district’s health office. “Many of the abductors are not prosecuted because it is expensive for the families to open and then follow a case to completion. What we are doing with this joint programme is strengthen the support to girls who go to school by using youth clubs to make them aware of their rights and quickly report any approaches by abductors.”

Shebere Telila* is another recipient of the support that youth clubs in the district’s schools provided. The 15-year old, who finished as a second best student in her class this year, was repeatedly approached by older boys who asked her mother for her hand in marriage. “I have dreams of growing up and becoming an engineer to build big buildings and large bridges,” she says. “Now is not the time for me to get married. My mother also knows this and would tell this to people who came to ask for marriage.”

One particular boy, however, did not heed to this and would even brag to her neighbours how he would wait for her one day when she returns from school and make her his. “Whenever someone in our neighbourhood told me about this, I would feel freightened,” she says. “My brother used to walk me to and from school for a while, but I knew that this could not be done forever.”

But rather than staying frightened, Telila, now a member of the youth club in her school; decided to confront her aggressor. “I went to our headmaster’s office with our class prefect to tell him everything,” she says. “Our headmaster then wrote a letter to our kebele [village] office and they instructed him to stop. They called him for a meeting and made him write a letter in front of his friends and family promising that he would not lay hands on me. When I saw that he signed the letter, I was relieved. On his face, I saw the same fear that he would put me through. I knew he would not defy his family and friends to do something to me. I knew I was a free person.”

Today, Telila makes the 30-minute commute from her home to school without any fear that a creepy teenager would emerge from the obscure mountains to attack her. At school, she takes time from studies to discuss her experience with younger girls and give them confidence on how to protect themselves. “Some of the members of our club have been victims and so we know the signs,” she says about the peer-assist mechanism in place at the youth club. “We also visit parents at home to encourage girls to come to school regularly and ask them not to marry their children at a young age.”

And what does she advise other girls who get approached by boys for early marriage?

“To be young and pretty is not a crime. Rather, being quiet when someone is pushing you to get married is the crime. Come out and tell everyone about your problems. Do not keep quiet until it is too late. Just do what I did and seek help. If you do, there is plenty of it available.”

*Names have been changed to protect identity of the girls.

UNDSG’s – Jan Eliasson Calls for Action on sanitation at Ethiopian school

By Sacha Westerbeek

SEBETA DISTRICT, 1 February 2014 –  “Wash your hands before you eat; wash your hands after visiting the toilet; wash your body… clean your environment ….” The song in the Oromiffa language continues with further messages on hygiene.

When the UN Deputy Secretary-General, Mr Jan Eliasson walks toward the latrines at DimaPrimary School in Sebeta, Oromia Region, he is welcomed by students from the Hygiene and Sanitation club, singing proudly about personal and environmental hygiene.

Hayat Hachallu, is 13 years old and a member of the Dima Primary school Hygiene and Sanitation Club. This 7th grader is certainly not shy. She takes the DSG by the hand and shows him the school latrine, hand washing facilities and the water point.

“Here are the latrines for girls,” she explains to the special visitor, while opening the door carefully. “For us, girls, it is very important to have private facilities. A place where we feel safe and have the privacy we need. The toilets here are not great: they are too dark, the doors don’t close very well and it really smells badly,” she says. “Now, let me show you our newly built latrines,” and she pulls Mr. Eliasson away from the rickety iron sheet structure toward a stone construction.

Hayat Machala, 13, a member of Hygiene Club, explains the role of the club and one of the latrines to DSG Jan Eliasson
Hayat Machala, 13, a member of Hygiene Club, explains the role of the club and show one of latrines in school to Jan Eliasson, Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations, at Dima Guranda Primary School in Sebeta District in Oromia Region of Ethiopia ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2014/Ose

There are 30,634 primary schools in Ethiopia[1], of which 5,000 are directly supported by UNICEF.  Primary schools are encouraged to address key Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) issues such as installation of water supply, construction of gender-segregated toilets and hand-washing facilities.  Hayat and the other girls are benefiting from UNICEF funding for the newly built girls latrine.

“Look Mister look”, Hayat points proudly. “Look, here are our new toilets. They are much better don’t you think,” she asks cheekily.  Hayat clarifies that the school Hygiene and Sanitation activities are managed by the Environmental Protection and Sanitation Club which is composed of 105 students of which 57 are girls and 5 are teachers.

Mr Mesfin Tessema, the school director further elaborates: “The sanitation club is established to engage children in various hygiene and sanitation activities as part of learning and behavioural change.”

When Mr Jan Eliasson asks about the clubs activities, Hayat goes into detail: We are involved in the clearing and cleaning of the school compound; cleaning of the latrines; we encourage students to wash their hands after they use latrines; we conduct environmental sanitation campaigns in the school and within the community; and we have established relationships with the nearby Health Post for the promotion of hygiene activities. And we are also involved with the beautification and environmental protection of the school compound with tree planting.”

Children are agents of change

Hayat Machala, 13, a member of Hygiene Club, shows a newly built toilet for girls to DSG Jan Eliasson
Hayat Machala, 13, a member of Hygiene Club, shows a newly built toilet for girls to Jan Eliasson, Deputy Secretary- General of the United Nations, at Dima Guranda Primary School in Sebeta District in Oromia Region of Ethiopia. ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2014/Ose

By focusing on school aged children and providing them with the necessary tools and knowledge to change behaviours at school and home, children play a crucial role in sharing information and knowledge with their parents and family members to achieve better health, environmental, sanitation and hygiene practices.

Ethiopia has been an active participant in the Sanitation and Water for All Partnership. In 2013, the Ethiopian Government, with support from UNICEF, was able to establish a Sector-wide Approach termed the ONE WASH National Programme with a dedicated budget line for sanitation in the Government of Ethiopia’s treasury for sanitation.

Since 1990, the country has made substantial progress in improving access to water supply and sanitation coverage. However, millions of people still remain without access to safe water and sanitation services. In 2010, out of a population of over 80 million, about 46 million were without access to improved water supply and sanitation and Ethiopia had the highest number of people (38 million) practicing open defecation  among African countries.[2] The lack of access to adequate clean drinking water and sanitation services has a dramatic impact on the lives of people, especially women and girls, and undermines efforts to improve health, nutrition and education outcomes.

Although good progress is underway, still some challenges remain. Nationally, only around 31 per cent of school have water supply facilities in their premises and 33 per cent have improved latrine facilities. On average, the toilet/student ratio is 1:120.[3] In Oromia Region, where the Dima Primary School is situated, only 52 per cent of its total population has access to safe drinking water and the sanitation and hygiene coverage is also 52 per cent.[4]

It is up to ALL of us

The Deputy Secretary-General talks with the school children to hear about their experiences. While they explain the importance of the school club in educating the community on hygiene practices, and the challenges they are facing, the DSG appeals to each and every one of them. “It is up to ALL of us,” he underlines while speaking to the students and the bystanders. With passion and conviction he adds: “Nobody can do everything, but everybody can do something”.

Hayat and her peers nod in agreement. Although they had never previously heard of the DSG’s Call to Action on Sanitation, they know the importance of sanitation. They know their individual and club efforts will bring change. They know its up to them to make their school and community a better place. In the end, this is also their call to action. 


[3] Source: WASH Inventory 2012

[4] Source: WASH Inventory 2011

UNDSG Jan Eliasson washes hands with ashes in Ethiopia

By Sacha Westerbeek

DSG Jan Eliasson wash his hands with ash with the help of Lemma Buchule
Jan Eliasson, UN Deputy Secretary-General, washes his hands with ash with the help of Lemma Buchule at her home in Sebeta District in Oromia Region of Ethiopia,. ©UNICEF Ethioia/2014/Ose

HAROJILA FULASO, OROMIA REGION, 1 February 2014 – “The health extension worker told us to wash our hands with soap and if we don’t have soap, we can use ashes. So, when I have not been able to buy soap, this is what we use to disinfect our hands”.

Ms Shure Gore takes the can of ashes and hands it to United Nations Deputy Secretary-General Mr Jan Eliasson. He gently takes out some of the greyish substance and rubs it before rinsing it off with the water from the jerry can attached to the tree, next to the family’s’ latrine. “My hands are clean,” he exclaims while the family is observing his actions closely.

In Ethiopia’s Oromia region, the hygiene and environmental sanitation activities are the main focus for household and community level interventions. The woreda (district) latrine coverage is about 70 per cent. In Harojila Fulaso, however, 80 per cent of the households have reached the status of becoming a “model household.”

The model family is the approach adapted by the Health Extension Programme to improve household practices. After 96 hours of training and adopting 12 of the 16 packages, a family graduates to become a so-called model family. The health extension package is categorised under three major areas and one cross cutting area: namely Hygiene and environmental sanitation; family health services; disease prevention and control; and health education and communication.

The Lemma-Buchule family, in which Ms Shure Gore is the driving force, has a latrine with hand washing facilities and dry and liquid waste disposal pits. In addition, the household has adequate aeration and light and the animals are kept separate from the living area – to name a few requirements of becoming a model household.

The family lives a couple of minutes walk away from the health post. Ms Abebech Desalegn is one of the two health extension workers running the facility. The health post provides services to 736 households and 3,532 inhabitants – ensuring that health care is delivered at the doorstep. “I know Shure and her family very well,” says Ababech. “The family consists of 10 members, including eight children between the ages of 3 and 22 years old. They come here when they need vaccine, a new mosquito net or when they are ill.” She has assisted the household in reaching the status of “model household”. “They now inspire others to do just like them, they are an example to the community,” Ababech explains.

DSG visit to Ethiopia
Jan Eliasson, Deputy Secretary General of the United Nations, discusses the importance of hygiene to Lemma Buchule, right, and Abebech Desalegn, Health Extension Worker, at Buchule’s home in Sebeta District in Oromia Region of Ethiopia, 1 February, 2014. © UNICEF Ethiopia/2014/Ose

Health extension workers deliver health care at the doorstep

Ababech is a government salaried and trained health worker, under the Health Extension Programme, an innovative community based programme which started in 2003. To date, 38,000[1] health extension workers have been deployed in nearly all rural villages. The programme aims to create a healthy environment and healthy living by delivering essential health services to communities.

UNICEF supports the Health Extension Programme in different dimensions. Training of HEWs to improve their technical competencies in delivering health and nutrition services, procuring and distributing of vaccines, medicines and supplies, ensuring availability of job aids at health posts, have all led to increased coverage of health and nutrition services at community level.

In addition to prevention and health promotion services, health extension workers are also now involved in case management of pneumonia, diarrhoea and severe acute malnutrition in more than 90 percent of health posts.

The Deputy Secretary-General, Mr Jan Eliasson studies the charts on the wall of the small health post. “You are doing an excellent job here,” he says while impressed with the statistics and service delivery provided by this health extension post.

Abebech Desalegn, Health Extension Worker explaining her role in the community to  DSG Jan Eliasson
Abebech Desalegn, Health Extension Worker, explains her role in the community to Jan Eliasson, UN Deputy Secretary-General at Haro Jila Folaso Health Post in Sebeta District in Oromia Region of Ethiopia, ©UNICEF Ethioia/2014/Ose

Abebech explains that she is required to split her time between the health post and the community. Community outreach activities include working with model families, community groups or households. “Every day I’m very busy she continues. When I’m at the health post I provide basic services such as: immunisation; health education; antenatal care; family planning; delivery and postnatal care; growth monitoring and community treatment of severe acute malnutrition; diagnosis and treatment of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea; treatment of eye infections; treatment of selected skin problems; Vitamin A supplementation; first aid and referral of difficult cases… just to name a few of my daily activities.”

In addition, this young health worker, who has worked at this health post for the last seven years, has done thirty deliveries and many more postnatal checks. “I’m happy UNICEF provided delivery beds, but I also need clean water. Every single day I walk to the nearest water point, because I need clean water for the latrine and health interventions.”

WASH interventions at Health Post level

To date, UNICEF has provided a total of 160 health posts with a complete WASH package.  This includes: providing capacity in the design of WASH facilities, construction of water supply and sanitation facilities and hygiene promotion to health institutions through construction and disseminating information on hygiene and environmental sanitation. In addition, WASH interventions at the health post level include: the provision of a hand-washing stand; a septic tank; incinerator; placenta pits; general solid waste and sharp pits.

“I’m lucky having clean water nearby,” says Ababech. “But too many of my colleagues really struggle, especially those who work in remote and dry areas.”

Ethiopia has been an active participant in the Sanitation and Water for All Partnership. In 2013, the Ethiopian Government, with support from UNICEF, was able to establish a Sector-wide Approach termed the ONE WASH National Programme with a dedicated budget line for sanitation in the Government of Ethiopia’s treasury.

Although good progress is underway in the area of water, sanitation and hygiene, still some challenges remain. In 2010, out of a population of over 80 million, about 46 million were without access to improved water supply and sanitation and Ethiopia had the highest number of people (38 million) practicing open defecation among African countries[2]. The lack of access to adequate clean drinking water and sanitation services has a dramatic impact on the lives of people, especially women and girls, and undermines efforts to improve health, nutrition and education outcomes.

Mr Jan Eliasson underlines the need for clean water and sanitation. “We really must act now. We have to talk about sanitation and improving access to toilets and clean water. We also must change attitudes and behaviours,” he emphasises with passion.

Ms Gore fully agrees. “Since I have a latrine and we wash our hands at critical times, I see less disease in my family. The children go to school and we work on the land – for this, we need to be healthy.”