Addis Ababa, 9th July 2018: UNICEF signed annual workplans with the Government of Ethiopia for the Ethiopian Fiscal Year 2011. The workplans were signed by Mr Admasu Nebebe, State Minister in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Cooperation (MoFEC), Ms Gillian Mellsop, UNICEF Representative to Ethiopia and heads of Regional Bureaus of Finance and Economic Cooperation. UNFPA also attended the signing ceremony, as one of the UN agencies signing annual workplans with the Government of Ethiopia under the UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF 2016-2020). UNFPA was represented by Mrs. Bettina Maas, UNFPA Country Representative to Ethiopia.
The workplans will create a platform for the implementation of integrated child-focused development interventions in Ethiopia’s regional states and city administrations. This year, with support from MoFEC, UNICEF has managed to reduce the number of work plans from 143 to 89 by integrating related programmes that are currently being implemented by different implementing partners. The reduction will strengthen collaboration and coordination among implementing partners and will contribute to efficient utilization of resources by reducing operating costs and facilitating joint programme implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
In his remarks, Mr. Admasu Nebebe said the continued support and resources mobilized by UNICEF and UN agencies in the past decades has been valuable to Ethiopia’s development. In particular, he singled out the participatory process used to develop the workplans as a key to enhance mutual accountability and ownership of programmes.
Ms. Gillian Mellsop said UNICEF highly values its partnership with MoFEC and the Regional Bureaus. Appreciating the fact that the vast majority of resources are allocated to the regions, Ms. Mellsop said UNICEF is grateful for the support and collaboration of the regional government partners to deliver results for children and women in general and to reach the most disadvantaged and vulnerable children in particular.
The workplans will be implemented by more than 140 regional and federal government partners covering 12 programme areas that include health, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene, education, early warning and disaster preparedness, violence against children, ending child marriage and FGM, birth registration, child rights, communication, public finance for children, evidence generation, and programme coordination, monitoring and evaluation.
Kejelo, Tiro AFETA, Oromia, 14 June 2018: Inside the small room of Kejelo health post, health extension worker Amelework Getachew carefully monitors her stock of medicines stacked on a small wooden shelf. She checks to make sure that an Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS), a fluid replacement used to prevent and treat diarrhoea, Amoxicillin Dispersible Tablet and Gentamicin injection, antibiotics used to treat children with pneumonia and serious bacterial infections, are available in good quantity. She cross checks the numbers on each bin card and the actual quantities on the shelf. “I can’t afford to run out of these medicines,” says Amelework, pointing towards a stock of sachets of ORS and packs of amoxicillin tablets and gentamicin injections. “They are lifesaving.”
After Amelework is done taking inventory, she collects her essential job-aids for home visits and attends to five-month-old Aziza in her home as part of her routine house-to-house visit. This way, Amelework makes sure that pregnant women and newborn babies get health follow-ups.
When Aziza was only 45 days old, she suffered from pneumonia, the common killer of infants in Ethiopia. “I was so worried when my child was sick,” says Rawda, Aziza’s mother. “She was struggling to breathe and had it not been for ‘doctor’, my child would not have survived.”
“I was so worried when my child was sick. She was struggling to breathe”
Amelework, whose name also means “a golden character,” is a committed health worker. Her nine-year journey as a health extension worker started in a remote village of Kereyu Dodo when she was given the daunting task of changing people’s attitudes on a range of health-related misconceptions. It wasn’t easy for her to convince people to dig toilets or use bed nets to keep them safe from malaria. “They used to call us names like the ‘toilet controllers’ or ‘bed net checkers,” she remembers.
But Amelework is now dubbed ‘doctor’, a name bestowed to her out of love and respect by the village women. She is key to the livelihoods of the community, saving mothers and newborns including little Aziza in the small village of Kejelo.
Although Ethiopia has managed to significantly reduce its under-five child mortality, newborn deaths have declined at a much slower pace. Twenty-nine newborn babies die out of every 1,000 live births from preventable causes such as complications due to prematurity, birth asphyxia, and infections like sepsis, and pneumonia. Newborn deaths also account for a greater and growing share of all deaths among children under 5; almost 44 per cent.
Supported by UNICEF, the Government of Ethiopia introduced the Community Based Newborn Care (CBNC) strategy in 2012. CBNC aims to empower health extension workers, such as Amelework, with skills to provide maternal and child health services during pregnancy, childbirth and postnatally. Heath extension workers are also trained to identify and treat newborns with severe bacterial infections or sepsis where referral is not possible. They provide treatment for sick children both at the health post and in houses during their regular visits.
“The treatment we are providing is free of charge,” says Amelework. “This is encouraging mothers to bring their children early when they are sick. It is also helping us to save young children from serious illnesses like pneumonia.”
Amelework is trained to provide CBNC services by JSI Research & Training Institute, Inc/ The Last Ten Kilometers Project (JSI/L10K), which is implementing the programme with technical and financial support from UNICEF. She also gets constant support and follow-up from the CBNC supervision team who regularly visit her health post to make sure that she is applying the standard operating procedures.
“We train and support Amelework to deliver her very important work by effectively identifying sick children in the village during her regular immunization outreach work and when she is providing house-to-house postnatal care,” says Wosen Darge, the CBNC Regional Technical Officer from JSI/L10K. “We also monitor and evaluate her records to ensure key information is recorded and stored in the treatment book.”
Amelework is also provided with guidance and support on supply management. She keeps track of her medical supplies to avoid shortages of crical drugs that she needs for immediate use.
“Nothing is more fulfilling than seeing a mother’s happy face when her child is recovering from such illnesses”
UNICEF is supporting the scaling up of CBNC services with funds from the Margaret A. Cargill Foundation. Working in coordination with the Ministry of Health, it is expected that the positive experiences observed in villages like Kejelo will be expanded to pastoralist areas.
A humble hard worker such as Amelework embodies Ethiopia’s hope to end preventable newborn and child deaths within this generation. “Nothing is more fulfilling than seeing a mother’s happy face when her child is recovering from such illnesses,” she says, “I am a mother myself and I know the feeling.”
Aziza is growing up healthy, her mother’s wish is to see her daughter becoming a ‘doctor’, like Amelework. “She [Amelework] saved my child’s life and I want my daughter to also do the same when she grows up,” says Rawda, with eyes full of hope to see a bright future for her baby daughter.
26 May 2018, WUKRO, Tigray region – Today marks another major milestone in the Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) sector in Ethiopia with the inauguration of a model water supply, sanitation and waste management system in Wukro Town, Tigray Region. Part of the One WASH Plus programme, the system integrates innovative and resilient solutions to provide WASH services to 73,000 people, including 35,000 children under the age of 15, residing in the town and its satellite villages.
Attending the inauguration were His Excellency Dr. Negash Wagasho, State Minister of Water Irrigation and Electricity, Dr Christian Rogg, Head of the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) in Ethiopia, Ms. Gillian Mellsop, UNICEF Representative in Ethiopia, officials from the Tigray Regional Government and Wukro Town administration officials.
“Ethiopia’s rapid urbanization and population growth has resulted in increased water stress,” said Dr. Negash Wagasho. “The development of adequate, resilient, sustainable and inclusive WASH services is therefore a must to ensure sustainable development of rapidly growing towns. Thus, what we are seeing today is what can be achieved when we put our concerted efforts together.”
“The UK is the largest bilateral donor in the Ethiopian WASH sector and we are proud to fund the excellent work taking place in Wukro, which is supplying vital water and sanitation services to the town and its surroundings,” said Dr Rogg. “I hope the progress in Wukro can serve as an example to be emulated on a national scale.”
UNICEF Representative Gillian Mellsop said the project was one of the greatest achievements of the One WaSH Plus programme and stands as a testament to the tremendous good that can be achieved when everyone pools their resources together towards one common purpose.
“Investments of this nature, both in Wukro and elsewhere in Ethiopia, are not just improving access to essential services but are changing entire lives,” said Dr. Samuel Godfrey, Chief of WASH at UNICEF. “Women and girls no longer have to walk long distances and spend many hours fetching water. Girls can go to school and attend to their schoolwork while mothers have enough time to spend with their children and engage in other productive activities. For communities, a safe and clean environment means fewer disease outbreaks.”
The Wukro project involved expanding the capacity of the town’s existing system to supply water to the town and five satellite villages, integrating it with a “full chain” system for managing liquid sludge and waste (from containment to recycling), improving water and sanitation in institutions such as schools and health facilities, and establishing a business model for managing the facility comprising the local administration and private operators. The low-cost technology deployed in treating domestic liquid waste in selected social housing developments in the town was sourced through a partnership with the Government of Brazil.
The One WASH Plus programme, fully funded by DFID, is implemented by UNICEF in collaboration with the Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Electricity, regional sector bureaus, and the Water Resource Development Fund. The programme also works with the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Urban Development and Construction, and respective Sector Regional Bureaus, as well as town administrations and town water supply and sewerage utilities.
The programme, which began in 2013, will benefit 250,000 people in eight small towns and surrounding rural villages in Amhara, Oromia, Somali and Tigray regions with a total investment of some US $36 million by targeting communities living in towns and in peri-urban areas. Models such as the one in Wukro, some large and others medium sized, are now a key component of the One WaSH programme across more than 1,000 towns in the four regions in Ethiopia.
Ethiopia’s rapid urbanization and urban development has resulted in increased water stress and high potential for disease outbreaks. The development of adequate, resilient, sustainable and inclusive WASH services is therefore a must to ensure sustainable development of the rapidly growing towns to meet the targets set in the SDGs.
When you travel in a car through Addis Ababa, you will note that adult women and men vary greatly in height. There are tall people and short people. So which ones of these are actually stunted? And why? Scientifically stunting is defined as a reduced growth rate in human development and is a primary manifestation of malnutrition or more accurately under nutrition. The definition of stunting according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) is for the “height for age” value to be less than two standard deviations of the WHO Child Growth Standards median.
So how does under nutrition occur? Recent scientific evidence suggests that under nutrition is a result of recurrent infections such as diarrhoea or helminthiasis in early childhood and even before birth. In 2016, UNICEF Ethiopia, published a blog entitled BABY WASH – the missing piece of the puzzle?, in which evidence from a paper published by UNICEF and John Hopkins University in the Journal of Tropical Medicine and International Health highlighted the need to target interventions to reduce unsafe practices of disposal of baby and child faeces. To convert this evidence into action, the Government of Ethiopia, UNICEF and partners have developed a BABYWASH implementation guideline. The guideline aims at contributing to improving Integrated Early Childhood Development (IECD) through improving the baby and child environment.
The 2017 World Toilet Day was a perfect opportunity to launch the BABYWASH guideline. The document includes guidance on how to implement programmes with safe disposal of child faeces, providing protective environments through play mats and similar measures as well as prevention of soil transmitted helminths. The strategy was endorsed for implementation alongside regular safe sanitation and hygiene practices which are already being promoted by health extension workers. In his statement, H.E Dr Kebede Worku, State Minister of Health of Ethiopia said, “In Ethiopia, there is a common misconception that children’s faeces are not harmful while evidence shows otherwise. The current sanitation and hygiene promotion efforts, at times, overlook safe disposal of children’s faeces. In addition, most toilets are not designed keeping children’s special needs in mind. Hence, I am proud to endorse the Baby WASH manual today which was developed by the Federal Ministry of Health with the support of UNICEF and other partners in order to ensure a healthy environment for children’s growth and development especially those under three years of age.”
Ms Gillian Mellsop, UNICEF Representative to Ethiopia on her part said, “UNICEF is pleased to support the Ministry of Health in preparing these excellent guidelines on Baby WASH. We know that a contaminated environment harms infants and young children and puts them at risk of increased child mortality and stunting. Together, we have to ensure that parents and guardians, teachers and community leaders are aware of the importance of Baby WASH.”
According to the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) baseline survey on Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene carried out in eight regions of Ethiopia, there is a general misconception about child faeces disposal. The survey showed that a lack of knowledge on the health risk related to child faeces is a key factor behind poor hygiene practices in faeces disposal. According to the survey, only half (49 per cent) of women knew that child faeces are dangerous to health. Misconception is higher among rural pastoralist women where only 39 per cent said child faeces are dangerous as compared with 50 per cent among rural non-pastoralist women and 54 per cent of women in urban areas. Although it may not be clear who is stunted and who is not just by looking at a child, it’s clear that safe disposal of child faeces helps improve a child’s health. Therefore, UNICEF will continue to support the Government with the implementation of the guideline throughout the country.
20 November 2017, United Nations Conference Centre, Addis Ababa: Today, Ethiopia joined the global World Children’s Day celebrations by giving children high profile roles to become champions of their rights. In line with the event’s theme ‘For children, By children’ child parliamentarians took over the roles of the Ministers of: Women and Children’s Affairs; Health; Education; Water, Irrigation and Electricity; Labour and Social Affairs; and Urban Works and Construction. In addition, children took over the roles of the Attorney General and UNICEF Representative. In their new roles as ‘shadow Ministers’, children shared their ideas on issues that affect their lives.
At the event, which was truly owned by children, some of the key recommendations proposed by children include:
Accelerate efforts to end harmful traditional practices, including child marriage and Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
Provide clean water and sanitation services for all children across the country, no matter where they live
Build more hospitals that are focused on child health and ensure health professionals treat children with care and love
Involve children in child justice
Ensure quality education for all children through skilled teachers, including pre-primary education
Ensure that girls stay in school and finish their education
Provide more playgrounds and safe spaces, especially in urban and peri-urban settings
Include children’s voices when adults and local authorities discuss issues that affect children’s lives.
Child parliamentarians from different regions also had an opportunity to discuss issues relevant to children in Ethiopia with shadow Ministers and dignitaries through a Q&A session.
In her opening remarks, H.E Ms Demitu Hambisa, Minister of Women and Children’s Affairs, stated that this year’s World Children’s Day is a day of action for children by children. She highlighted that decision makers need to ensure that children’s voices are heard and reflected in decisions that affect their lives.
Ms Gillian Mellsop, UNICEF Representative to Ethiopia, emphasising the need for the participation of children said, “Meaningful participation of children is not only a fundamental right – and enshrined as such in the Convention on the Rights of the Child – but is also key to ensuring that decisions made by adults are relevant to the actual needs of children.”
In addition, UNICEF Ethiopia launched its publication ‘Hulem Lehisanat- Always for children’ depicting its 65 years history serving children and women in Ethiopia.
The event highlighted the importance of including children’s voices by providing children with an opportunity to share their own solutions on how to keep every child in Ethiopia healthy, well-nourished, in school and protected.
ADDIS ABABA, 9 OCTOBER 2017: In October 2017, UNICEF Ambassador Alyssa Milano sparked the viral campaign, “me too,” where she asked those who had been victims of sexual abuse to say #metoo via social media. With the goal to show the scale of the issue, the campaign shocked the world as millions of women, girls, men and boys participated.
In Ethiopia, Konjit, a 14-year-old eighth-grader who attends a junior-secondary school in Addis Ababa, is one of these brave girls who spoke out on sexual assault. Last year, one of her closest friends confided in Konjit and told her that their teacher had been sexually abusing her. Konjit, being a member of the school gender club knew what the teacher was doing was illegal. At her weekly club meetings, she was taught about the code-of-conduct which clearly states that those acts were punishable by school law. After discussing with her friend, Konjit decided to bring the case to the gender club to discuss what steps they needed to take to punish the teacher and stop the abuse from continuing.
The word began to spread to other classmates. More girls began speaking out to say, “me too.” They were first quiet for fear and shame, but once one girl bravely spoke out they too found the courage to tell their story.
As one can imagine, this was not the safest of times for the girls for fear that the teacher would find out and do more harm. “It was scary for us because if he saw us together he may know what we were up to. We were all so afraid of the teacher,” said Konjit.
However, this did not stop them. Konjit and other gender club members were determined to help their friends. In the end they found out that at least 9 girls were sexually abused by the same teacher, some at more severe levels than others. With support from the school’s Vice Director, Ms Netsanet Abebe, the gender club brought written statements from the victims as evidence to the school’s Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response Code of Conduct Committee who referenced the chapter that leads to severe types of misconduct. The committee unanimously made the decision to dismiss the teacher. The school also referred the case to the justice department for legal action where the teacher was then convicted in court and sent to jail for his actions.
If the incidents happened only a few years earlier, the teacher would have gotten away with his actions. However, two years ago UNICEF began supporting the Ethiopian Ministry of Education to develop a national code-of-conduct, build a system to report on gender-based violence and abuse, strengthen the capacity of gender clubs to put reporting channels in place, as well as incorporate men and boys into the clubs so that they can also play a central role in combatting gender-based violence.
Today, Konjit and her friends feel a strong sense of empowerment. Each of them took huge risks to tell their stories, but because they understood their legal rights they knew it was well worth it. The girls now know what to do to stop this from happening to other classmates. As one of the victims strongly puts it, “Now that the teacher is out, no one else would dare to do that to us. We feel stronger and more confident to take action!”
In a country like Ethiopia, where the prevalence of school-related sexual violence goes as high as 46 per cent it takes courageous girls to stand up and say, “Me too” and “enough is enough!”
 The name has been changed due to confidentiality issues.
 Ethiopian primary school stretches for 8 years, from grade 1 – 8. Grades 7 and 8 could also be known as ‘junior secondary school’. The official age of school entry is 7 years.
 Save the Children Denmark, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Women’s Affairs. (2008)
ZIGEM WOREDA, AMHARA REGION, 06 OCTOBER 2017 – “I went to the police station when my parents told me that I am getting married,” says Mestawet Mekuria,14, a 7th grader in Ayti Primary School, Amhara region, northern Ethiopia. She is also among 20 girl students who have been rescued from getting married in the school.
“I had learned about child marriage and its consequences in our school’s girls’ club. I told my parents that I do not want to get married. But they refused, and that is when I ran to the police station.”
Mestawet went to the police assuming that her parents will only be warned seriously. But it was much more than that. Her parents were arrested and imprisoned for two weeks for violating the law.
“I was sad when they were arrested but they refused to listen to me.”
Child marriage, a formal marriage or informal union before age 18, is prevalent across all regions of Ethiopia. According to the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS), Amhara region has the second highest rate of child marriage, 56 per cent, next to Benishangul-Gumuz region which has 58.
Although, Mestawet’s parents were angry for what happened to them, later they made peace with her through a mediation which was led by village elders. “My parents now understand about child marriage and its consequences. They are no longer angry with me,” says Mestawet.
Child marriage often perpetuates an intergenerational cycle of poverty. When girls get married at early age, their prospects for a healthy and successful life will be at stake. Evidence shows that girls who marry early are less likely to finish school and more likely to be victims of domestic violence and abuse. In addition, young teenage girls are more likely to die due to complications in pregnancy and childbirth than women in their 20s.
Girls’ clubs making a big impact
Strengthening girls’ club as part of the accelerated effort to end child marriage in Zigem woreda, Amhara region was initiated in 2015 by the Bureau of Women and Children Affairs (BoWCA) through support from UNICEF-UNFPA Global Programme to Accelerate Action to End Child Marriage.
The ending child marriage programme focuses on enhancing the capacity of girls through providing life skill training, information about their rights and available services as well as enhancing the responsiveness of schools and legal services. It also targets families and communities to change their attitude towards ending the practice and show support to alternative life options for girls such as their education.
Girls’ clubs are established with the aim of preventing and mitigating school based and community based barriers to girls’ education. The clubs are making a difference in reducing child marriage by empowering girls through life skills trainings. The clubs particularly focus on engaging girls between 5th-8th grades as these represent the age group most commonly affected by child marriage.
According to Abebe Adamu, one of the trainers from Bureau of Women and Children Affairs, 106 girls were rescued from getting married in 2016 and 55 girls last year. “The community is currently aware that child marriage is harmful,” he says. “Students are also more aware of their rights to reject any marriage proposal coming to them against their will.”
Wubayehu Tilahun, girls’ club coordinator and a teacher at Ayti Primary School is pleased with the girls’ club performance. “Seeing my students continue their education gives me a great pleasure. Here in Ayti, we have rescued 20 girls from marriage in the past two years, and we will continue to be fighting against this harmful practice.”
Even though girls’ clubs are currently promoting change in schools where they are active, there are still many challenges. “Budget constraints hinders the effort to expand the exemplary role that the clubs are making in schools and communities,” says Abebe. “We have many primary schools that do not have such a functional structure like Ayti and we need more support,” he added.
Nationally, the Government of Ethiopia has made a commitment to end child marriage by 2025 through enhanced coordination, budget allocation, accountability mechanism and availability of data. The establishment of a National Alliance to End Child Marriage and Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) is another significant stride in the effort to end child marriage as it has been key in coordinating interventions.
UNICEF supports the Government’s effort by strengthening the coordination mechanisms at different levels. Additionally, UNICEF is supporting the implementation of a multi-sectoral programmes in six regions: Amhara, Afar, Somali, Oromia, Gambella and Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples region. The programme includes social mobilization to change attitudes and strengthen collective community action to end the practice. It also focuses on improving enforcement of the existing legal frameworks.
To further strengthen and accelerate efforts to end child marriage and other harmful traditional practices and to bring about the necessary societal shifts in communities, UNICEF has also established strategic partnership with major faith based and civil society organizations.
“Child marriage is a harmful practice, and I want girls to continue with their education like me,” says Mestawet. “I have seen my classmates quit school because they are married. I always tell my friends in my village about child marriage, and I will continue to do so to others”.
Mestawet wants to become either a doctor or a teacher. It might be years before she realizes her dreams but in the meantime, she keeps protecting girls in her village, including her own younger sister, from getting married early.