Ethiopia Attains Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination

Addis Ababa, 30 June 2017: “Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination in Ethiopia is hereby validated!” That was the conclusion of the joint mission from UNICEF and WHO today at its debriefing sessions with: the Ethiopian Ministry of Health; the WHO Representative to Ethiopia; and the UNICEF Representative to Ethiopia. The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia has thus become 42nd country in the world to have validated the elimination of Maternal and Neonatal tetanus.

Ethiopia began accelerated Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination (MNTE) efforts in 1999. In 2011, all the regions in the country except the Somali Region were validated for MNTE. The 2011 validation mission made recommendations that would see the Somali Region progress to MNTE over time. The recommendations were implemented especially corrective vaccination campaigns against tetanus in 2016. The administrative, as well as post-campaign survey data, revealed more than 85% coverage in each of the 9 zones of Ethiopia Somali Region. The Joint validation mission reviewed these and other related data during the period, 28-30 June 2017, and concluded that maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination had been achieved in the Somali Region and, by extension, in the whole of Ethiopia.

Receiving the good news of the validation of MNTE in Ethiopia, the State Minister of Health, His Excellency Dr. Kebede Worku exclaimed that “The country had worked hard on improving Maternal and Child Health services delivery with tangible results including the record attainment of MDG 4 three years ahead of the target year of 2015. Along with this, MNTE was given emphasis and hence between 1999 and 2009, over 15 million women of reproductive age (WRA) in 59 high-risk zones were immunized during three rounds of Tetanus Toxoid (TT) Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIA). Thus in April 2011, the validation survey concluded that the whole country except Somali region had been validated for MNTE, and now the whole country including Somali region has achieved MNT elimination. This was possible through the efforts and investments made to improve maternal and child health care. The ministry of health will continue to sustain this gain by integrating maternal and child health care services with other public health priorities”.

WHO Representative, Dr. Akpaka A. Kalu, congratulated the country and said that “WHO is grateful for this remarkable result. He added that WHO will continue to support the Ministry to sustain this achievement by prioritizing risk areas for public health interventions that need more support and interventions through specifically targeted strategies with active community involvement to achieve the desired results.” Dr. Kalu also revealed that the integration of vaccine preventable disease with other health programs will be also incorporated in the WHO response strategy.

“I would like to extend my warm congratulations to the Ministry of Health and its partners for this excellent achievement, which benefits the health of women and children,” said Ms. Shalini Bahuguna, Officer in Charge of UNICEF Representative to Ethiopia. “UNICEF will continue to support the government of Ethiopia to sustain this achievement and deliver results for every child” she added.

Zones were selected following an in-depth review of the risk factors for maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT) using the high-risk approach. Clean delivery and cord care practices, reaching all women of reproductive age in high-risk districts through TT SIAs and immunization of pregnant women during routine immunization and conducting neonatal surveillance as it is a hidden disease, are some of the interventions that helped to achieve this remarkable result.

It is acknowledged that the validation of MNTE in Ethiopia is not an end in itself but the beginning of a new phase of interventions focused on sustaining the attainment of Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus elimination status, an endeavour that is possible only through: maintaining tetanus protection level at above 80 percent in every zone especially in the zones that achieved elimination through Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs); strengthening partnerships for improving Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) activities; and  implementing the sustainability plan of action-2014 which incorporates a  switch from Tetanus Toxoid (TT) to Tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine, and annual joint review of national MNT risk status  to guide the interventions.

 

 

Reaching Pastoralist Families with Primary Education in Drought-affected Areas

By Rebecca Beauregard

DASENECH, SOUTHERN NATIONS, NATIONALITIES AND PEOPLE’S, 6 April 2017 – A primary school located in the midst of pastoralist territory is no simple feat. Mobility is the central theme of pastoralism, or livestock-rearing livelihoods and pastoralists make up nearly 20 per cent of Ethiopia’s 94.3 million population. In the deep south along the border with South Sudan and Kenya, agro-pastoralism is commonly practiced. They are semi-mobile as they tend to large herds of animals and grow crops. While historically, pastoralists are one of the most isolated and vulnerable groups, more and more are receiving the opportunity to attend school.

The Naikia Primary School offers grades 1 through 4 within the walls of the two-building, single-story school. It is located in the remote Dasenech woreda (district) in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s (SNNP) region. The school is a centrepiece amongst the four villages which comprise the Naikia kebele (sub-district) and serves 193 children from the 1,695 nearby residents.

Until 2005, there was no school in the kebele. The Government of Ethiopia began implementing pastoralist education strategies at that time and Naikia kebele was one of the locations where an Alternative Basic Education Centre (ABEC) was constructed, with support from UNICEF. The ABEC provided flexible, simplified lessons based on the national curriculum, designed specifically to extend the reach of education to pastoralist families.

The community readily accepted the change, and in 2009, the ABEC was upgraded to a primary school, designed to also support a distant ABEC further in the woreda. Over the years, UNICEF has provided teacher training, furniture and educational materials to the school.

Donors visit UNICEF interventions in South Omo
11-year-old Allegn Arsena eats his portion of haricot beans and cracked wheat with his friend, Kayo Siliye during school feeding time, which takes place just after morning classes. School feeding programmes are known to keep children in school, particularly during times of drought when food and water are scarce. The programme is implemented by the Government of Ethiopia with support from the World Food Programme. ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2017/ Rebecca Beauregard

Allegn Arsena, 11 years old, is one of the fortunate students to have attended all four years and speaks Amharic well because of his education. I was curious upon first meeting him if he had ever had to drop out for some time, to look after animals or help his family. Upon asking him, he admitted, “Yes,” He paused before going on to tell me he had once been sick and missed an entire three days of school. Otherwise, he has been in attendance every day and even stays after class finishes to continue reading and studying. In fact, with little else to do, it seems most students and teachers and even community members stay around the school once classes are over, with the students carrying on their studies while others connect and talk. Conversation quickly turns to the current drought and how it is affecting everyone.

The South Omo zone is one of the few in SNNP region, along with parts of Oromia and Somali regions, which has been affected by recurring drought. After suffering through the weather phenomenon El Niño in 2015 and 2016, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) has caused failure of vital seasonal rains yet again. Dasanech is already underdeveloped and the IOD drought has intensified the dire situation.

“Sometimes I am late in the morning because there is no water available at the school and each of us has to fetch water to provide for the school feeding,” says one student. Her comment is amplified by resounding noise from the crowd of students, a motion I take to mean they have all experienced being tardy for the same reason.

Each student provides a share of water every day, the parents provide firewood and the school provides cracked wheat and haricot beans, supported by the World Food Programme. The essential school feeding has a solid track record for keeping kids in school, particularly in drought-stricken areas; one factor enabling students to learn.

Not every child in the neighbourhood has the opportunity to learn, however. Interestingly, there are more females than males in the school, and once past grade four, there are far fewer females than males going on to attend grade five. The reasons why are simple to explain, yet hard to fathom. Pastoralism requires people to watch the livestock and parents often have to pick which children may attend school and which must tend to the animals. Often it’s a one-time, consistent decision.

“I have two boys of similar age. When they reached school age, I had to select one to go on that path and the other to watch animals. It was a hard choice but I had to make it,” explains Nassiya Tabahai, a mother living in Naikia.

Donors visit UNICEF interventions in South Omo
Nassiya Tabahai, a mother from the Naikia community, speaks about the struggle she faced when having to pick which son could go to school and which had to stay behind with the family’s livestock. ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2017/ Rebecca Beauregard

To continue education past grade four, students must attend another school in the woreda capital about 26 km away. For cultural and safety reasons, most families are not comfortable to send their young daughters to live outside of the family home.

Facing limitations in many respects, the resilient community is proud of their 193 students and notes the importance of education. “A man who is not educated fights but an educated man has power and resolves conflict without fighting,” An elder gathered at the school explains.

UNICEF is committed to support the Government of Ethiopia’s pastoralist education strategies and to support those communities most affected by drought. Together with the Government and international donors, the progress witnessed at Naikia can continue and be replicated and expanded across pastoralist territory. For every child.

The Nutrition Factor of Warder

By Eskedar Kifle

WARDER, SOMALI, 7 May 2017 – “It was very difficult in the beginning, but now we are receiving water  and food from the Government. Our children have suffered from malnutrition,” says Deqa Osman, whose two children have suffered severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and are receiving medical follow ups. The 35-year-old mother of five says she was very happy with the medical attention that her children are receiving.

Like many others, Deqa and her family have lost their cattle-based livelihood due to the Horn of Africa drought that has displaced thousands. She now resides temporarily at the Qudh’le temporary resettlement site.

Children in the Qudh’le temporary resettlement site in Warder woreda. ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2017/Zerihun Sewunet

At the Qudh’le temporary resettlement site in Warder woreda (district) of Somali region, there are 500 children suffering from SAM that are receiving treatment at the Outpatient Therapeutic Programme (OTP), which is supported by UNICEF. The OTP has been instrumental in the recovery process for children with severe acute malnutrition who are unable to go to a hospital due to its distance from their site.

“There are wet feeding centres within the camp and there is sufficient food and water supplied by the Government but many children arrive here with issues related to malnutrition. The OTP has been extremely crucial for the survival of children,” explains Maryan Aydiid, the Government-appointed leader of the Qudh’le site.

UNICEF is carrying out several initiatives in response to acute malnutrition. These interventions include deploying a UNICEF-trained nutrition response team and awareness creation through communication for development (C4D) on the importance of breastfeeding.

Mothers discuss the challenges they are facing with Muktar Ibrahim, a community mobilizer, at the Qudh’le temporary resettlement site in Warder woreda. ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2017/Zerihun Sewunet

“With UNICEF support, we carry out breastfeeding awareness creation activities in the camps, at the [OTP] and other strategic places. The mothers understand how important it is,” Maryan says.

UNICEF supports 29 mobile health and nutrition teams (MHNT) in the Somali region, which are deployed as an extension of the health delivery system to reach remote and vulnerable populations. Each team consists of five health staff and a driver to provide a range of basic emergency services such as treatment for severe and moderate acute malnutrition for children and women, maternal health services, immunization , as well as hygiene promotion, among others. On average, the MHNTs have 1,400 medical and 70 nutrition consultations every month. UNICEF provides training, monitoring, technical support and the provision of medical and nutrition supplies, such as the 4,000 cartons of ready-to-use-therapeutic-foods (RUTF) supplied in the first four months of 2017.

“My son was critically ill due to SAM and he was discharged from the hospital after receiving medical care. I have not been able to breastfeed him as I have also been sick, and now he is sick again with no appetite. We will need to return to the hospital,” says Saynaba Sahene, a 20-year-old mother of three. Her son, experiencing his second bout of SAM, is only 18 months old.

Saynaba Sahene has her portrait taken with two of her children. Her 18-month-old is suffering from SAM for his second time. Warder woreda. ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2017/Zerihun Sewunet

In this protracted drought period in one of the most remote regions of Ethiopia, challenges persist. Gaps of human and material resources remain an issue and the effects of long-term drought have exhausted the capacity of Government and local partners. With funds from international donors, UNICEF can continue supporting Government interventions and therefore the resilience of the community and its support systems.

Joint UNICEF and WFP OpED on humanitarian situation in Ethiopia

UNICEF Deputy Executive Director, Omar Abdi & World Food Programme Deputy Executive Director, Ramiro Armando De Oliveira Lopes Da Silva

Wednesday 17 May 2017, Nairobi

This past week we have met countless women and children in the Somali region of Ethiopia who have made astonishing efforts to combat the debilitating drought that is afflicting the area. We saw families displaying incredible strength and resourcefulness.

What we didn’t see was a humanitarian catastrophe like the ones that happened in generations past, because the progress made by these families mirrors that made by Ethiopia in response to food insecurity and drought over the last two decades. Ethiopia now has both the determination and the ability to help its people cope better with a disaster.

And yet as we saw firsthand, Ethiopia’s much celebrated development progress could be at risk in the wake of these successive droughts.

Over the last 20 years, the Government of Ethiopia and the international community joined efforts to improve conditions for millions and millions of Ethiopians. Today a concerted and urgent response is required if these families are to avoid a humanitarian crisis, a quarter of a century later.

In 2016, Ethiopia’s highlands were battered by drought amid the worst El Nino in generations, but managed to avoid a major catastrophe through a well-coordinated response, led by the Ethiopian Government with support from the international community. The country had only begun to recover when a new drought struck the country’s lowlands.  The Somali region, which lies in the east of Ethiopia, has been the hardest hit by the effects of these recurrent droughts, with over 30 per cent of the region’s population now requiring food assistance.

The current rainy season in the lowlands appears to be failing as well.  As a result, food insecurity throughout Ethiopia is forecast to rise sharply from the current 7.8 million people in the next few months. An estimated 303,000 children are expected to suffer from severe acute malnutrition – the type that makes a child nine times more likely to die of diseases including acute water diarrhea and measles. An estimated 2.7 million children, pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers will be diagnosed with moderate acute malnutrition in drought areas; without urgent action, the condition of many of those children could deteriorate into severe acute malnutrition, a life-threatening condition that is harder and more expensive to treat.  It is likely that needs will further increase in the coming months, compounding the current problems.

Sehan Smail brought her child, Saedia Alilahi, 2 to the warder district, Somali region OTP for check up. © UNICEF Ethiopia /2017/Martha Tadesse

UNICEF and WFP are committed to supporting the many people we met this week with a well-coordinated response. WFP has mounted a food and nutrition response of significant magnitude and, in partnership with the government, is currently supporting 6.4 million people out of the 7.8 million in need with emergency food assistance.  The remaining 1.4 million people are receiving support from the Joint Emergency Operation (JEOP) – an NGO consortium.  Moreover, WFP is also providing nutrition support to 1.3 million mothers and young children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition.  WFP is also taking the lead in the provision of logistical support to government, UN and international NGO partners which is central to the response.

Across Ethiopia, UNICEF with partners has reached close to seven million people in the first quarter of 2017, with an emphasis on providing safe water and emergency nutrition support. Critically, government with support from UNICEF have just completed a national measles campaign targeting more than 22 million children across the country. And UNICEF is extending its education and child protection interventions that will reach hundreds of thousands of children, focusing on the provision of temporary learning and play spaces, working with communities to prevent and respond to family separation, at-risk migration, child marriage, and gender-based violence.

However, needs far outstrip available resources. Acute funding shortages are hampering our collective ability to act at scale. The international community and the Government of Ethiopia must increase funding urgently or the humanitarian success story of 2016 might be overshadowed just one year later by a story of acute crisis.

UNICEF requires $93.1 million to meet the drought-related needs of children and their families across the country in 2017, in terms of Nutrition, WASH, Health, Child Protection and Education in Emergencies.   WFP currently has only enough food to last through June, and requires a further $430 million to meet the current emergency food and nutrition needs to the end of the year – and both WFP and UNICEF will require additional resources if the needs rise in the next few months as predicted.

Between 2000 and 2016, mortality rates among children under age 5 were cut by a remarkable 40 per cent in Ethiopia, and stunting rates were reduced dramatically from 58 per cent to 38 per cent. It is crucial that the gains made during the last 20 years are not reversed by the current drought.

Teddy Afro and Gebregziabher Gebremariam among global stars to join Super Dads campaign to highlight fathers’ critical role in children’s early development  

NEW YORK/ADDIS ABABA, 6 June 2017 – Stars from the world of entertainment and sport including Mahershala Ali, David Beckham, the All Blacks, Daniel Cormier, Novak Djokovic, Lewis Hamilton, Hugh Jackman, Sachin Tendulkar, Thalía, Chris Weidman, Teddy Afro and Gebregziabher Gebremariam joined Super Dads, a new UNICEF initiative launched today to celebrate fatherhood, and highlight the importance of love, play, protection and good nutrition for the healthy development of young children’s brains.

With more than 90 countries celebrating Fathers’ Day this month, the initiative invites families to post photos and videos of what it takes to be ‘super dads,’ using the hashtag #EarlyMomentsMatter on their Instagram and Twitter accounts. To inspire families across the world to share their ‘super dads’ moments, photos and videos of UNICEF ambassadors and supporters who have got behind the campaign will be posted on UNICEF’s Instagram and Twitter, and featured on the campaign’s gallery between 6 and 18 June.

“As a father, I’ve seen for myself the impact that every smile, every bit of love, and every positive action has had on my child during these precious early years of life. Being a new parent isn’t easy. There are many challenges that fathers across the world face. This campaign is about supporting and encouraging fathers so they can be the Super Dads their kids desperately need,” said UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Novak Djokovic.

“I wouldn’t be where I am today without the support of my dad, there’s no question about that. He was involved right from the start and gave me all the love, guidance, decent food, and care that I could have wished for. I’ll remain forever grateful to him for that,” said UNICEF supporter Lewis Hamilton. “I hope this initiative celebrates dads like mine across the world and helps those who are struggling get the support they need to be super dads too.”

“When I was a young child, my father gave me the right amount of love, freedom and support to shape who I am today,” said UNICEF Ambassador Sachin Tendulkar. “Every kid needs protection, love, good food and play to support growth and development, and it’s up to both parents to provide these.”

“Children need the love of their parents more than anything,” says Tewodros Kassahun, a well-known Ethiopian singer. “I always try to be a good father. I love playing with my children. Intimacy and love are more important than anything,” adds Teddy who is also known as Teddy Afro.

In Ethiopia, many families are unaware of the significance of early childhood care and education for a child’s development, including the effects of appropriate nutrition, playtime and family care in an environment safe from violence. UNICEF is working for children aged 0–3 to receive adequate nurture and stimulation through an integrated and sustainable approach to quality early child development interventions that include health, nutrition, protection, early stimulation, school readiness and WASH.

Gebregziabher Gebremariam, an Ethiopian long-distance runner, who joined the global ‘Super Dads’ initiative calls for fathers to spend more time with their children. “The first days of a child’s life are very important. As a father, you can do so much to make sure that your child has a bright future.”

One such super dad is South Sudanese refugee Idro, who is raising three daughters aged 2 months, 3 and 13 years old in Uganda’s Bidi Bidi refugee settlement, the largest in the world. Idro fled his war-torn country in July 2016, and is doing everything he can to keep his young daughters’ healthy, happy and safe. “My daughter asks me “when are we going home”, I hold her to my side to comfort her. I play games with her and carry her. She must feel that I love her. If I can’t fulfil for my family, I am not happy,” said Idro.

“The earliest years of life present a critical, once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to shape children’s brain development – and it’s their parents who hold the largest stake in this process,” said Pia Britto, UNICEF Chief of Early Childhood Development.

“The more fathers, mothers and other family members shower their babies and young children with love, play, good nutrition and protection, the better these children’s chances are of reaching optimal health, happiness and learning ability. Good parenting for young children living in highly stressful conditions like conflict or extreme poverty can even provide a buffer, helping them to fully develop despite adversity,” said Britto.

Good parenting in early childhood, especially during the first 1,000 days, sparks neural connections in children’s brains, laying the foundation for their future successes. Research suggests that when children positively interact with their fathers, they have better psychological health, self-esteem and life-satisfaction in the long-term.

“We need to break down the employment and societal obstacles that deprive fathers – and mothers – of precious time with their young children,” said Britto. “It is critical that the private sector and governments work within their communities to give parents and caregivers of babies the time, resources and information they need to give children the best start in life.”

The ‘Super Dads’ initiative forms part of UNICEF’s #EarlyMomentsMatter campaign, which aims to drive increased understanding of how children’s environments and experiences in early childhood can shape their future health, well-being, ability to learn, and even how much they will earn as adults.

All photo and video submissions to the Super Dads initiative will feature on the #EarlyMomentsMatter gallery. UNICEF will select the most heart-warming, humorous, and imaginative photo and video submissions post them on the organization’s own digital platforms.

Ethiopian Centre for Child Research

The Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI) has established the Ethiopian Centre for Child Research (ECCR) in partnership with UNICEF Ethiopia and Addis Ababa University. The ECCR is inspired by the collaborative work of EDRI and Young Lives Longitudinal Research in Ethiopia as well as the Child Research and Practice Forum, which was also initiated by EDRI, Young Lives and other partners.

Located within the EDRI, ECCR is coordinated by a small team and overseen by a multi-stakeholder advisory board which includes: Addis Ababa University, Central Statistical Agency, EDRI, Education Strategy Centre, Ministry of Finance and Economic Cooperation, Ministry of Women and Children’s Affairs, Ministry of Youth and Sports, National Planning Commission, UNICEF and Young Lives Project.

The mission of the ECCR is to generate multidisciplinary child-focused research and evidence on policy and practice to inform decision and enhance programmatic capacity concerning the development, equity, wellbeing and protection for children in Ethiopia.

 Current Research Activities 

With funding from UNICEF Ethiopia, ECCR and UNICEF jointly presented the main findings from the Chronic Poverty Report at the ‘Child Poverty Conference in the Middle East and North Africa’ in Morocco on 15-17 May, 2017.

The ECCR is currently establishing partnerships and research collaborations with potential researchers and research institutes nationally and globally with initial funding support from UNICEF Ethiopia. The ECCR conducts fundraising activities to ensure the continuous functioning of the centre.

UNICEF Ethiopia has been instrumental in the establishment of the ECCR by providing start-up funding, in addition to undertaking child-focused collaborative research. While the UNICEF-EDRI partnership is expected to continue, ECCR plans to expand its scope of activities and is looking for potential funders in specific areas of child research.

 

 

UNICEF reaches almost half of the world’s children with life-saving vaccines

Despite progress, millions of children still miss out on life-saving immunization 

New York/Addis Ababa, 28 April 2017 – UNICEF procured 2.5 billion doses of vaccines to children in nearly 100 countries in 2016, reaching almost half of the world’s children under the age of five. The figures, released during World Immunization Week, make UNICEF the largest buyer of vaccines for children in the world.

Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan, the three remaining polio-endemic countries, each received more doses of vaccines than any other country, with almost 450 million doses of vaccines procured to children in Nigeria, 395 million in Pakistan and over 150 million in Afghanistan. UNICEF is the lead procurement agency for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

Access to immunization has led to a dramatic decrease in deaths of children under five from vaccine-preventable diseases, and has brought the world closer to eradicating polio. Between 2000 and 2015, under five deaths due to measles declined by 85 per cent and those due to neonatal tetanus by 83 per cent. A proportion of the 47 per cent reduction in pneumonia deaths and 57 per cent reduction in diarrhea deaths in this time is also attributed to vaccines.

Yet an estimated 19.4 million children around the world still miss out on full vaccinations every year. Around two thirds of all unvaccinated children live in conflict-affected countries. Weak health systems, poverty and social inequities also mean that 1 in 5 children under five is still not reached with life-saving vaccines.

“All children, no matter where they live or what their circumstances are, have the right to survive and thrive, safe from deadly diseases,” said Dr. Robin Nandy, Chief of Immunization at UNICEF. “Since 1990, immunization has been a major reason for the substantial drop in child mortality, but despite this progress, 1.5 million children still die from vaccine preventable diseases every year.”

Inequalities persist between rich and poor children. In countries where 80 per cent of the world’s under-five child deaths occur, over half of the poorest children are not fully vaccinated. Globally, the poorest children are nearly twice as likely to die before the age of five as the richest.

“In addition to children living in rural communities where access to services is limited, more and more children living in overcrowded cities and slum dwellings are also missing out on vital vaccinations,” said Nandy. “Overcrowding, poverty, poor hygiene and sanitation as well as inadequate nutrition and health care increase the risk of diseases such as pneumonia, diarrhea and measles in these communities; diseases that are easily preventable with vaccines.”

By 2030, an estimated 1 in 4 people will live in urban poor communities, mainly in Africa and Asia, meaning the focus and investment of immunization services must be tailored to the specific needs of these communities and children, UNICEF said.

In Ethiopia, immunization coverage has been increasing gradually since the introduction of the Government’s national immunization programme in 1980; however, the proportion of immunized children gradually increased  from 24 per cent in 2011 to  38.5 per cent in 2016 which still requires additional efforts to achieve universal coverage (Source: Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) 2011 and 2016).

The coverage of immunization is an important indicator for monitoring progress on the under-five mortality rate. According to the 2016 EDHS findings, approximately 38.5 per cent of children between 12 and 23 months received all basic vaccination. There are regional variations in children being fully vaccinated: 64.6 per cent of urban children are fully vaccinated, compared to 35.2per cent in rural areas. Firstborn children are more likely to be fully vaccinated. In addition, 26.4 per cent of children with mothers from the lowest wealth quintile and 30.7 per cent of children with mothers with no education are fully immunized, compared to 61.2 per cent of children with mothers from the highest wealth quintile and 69.6 per cent of children with mothers who have more than a secondary education.

The national routine immunization consists of 10 antigens, vaccines against measles, polio, rotavirus, diphtheria, pertussis, hepatitis B, HIV, tetanus, pneumonia and tuberculosis. A new vaccine against cervical cancer (human papilloma virus) was introduced in 2015 in two districts as a demonstration project; full introduction to all districts is scheduled for 2017.

UNICEF works with World Health Organization (WHO), Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and others to ensure that vaccines protect all children – especially those who are the hardest to reach and the most vulnerable.

Ethiopia celebrated the 7th African Vaccination week on 24 April  2017 in Fiche town, Oromia region with the theme “vaccines protect everyone-get vaccinated!” and the slogan, ‘‘Vaccinated Communities; Healthy Communities’’.

World Immunization Week runs from 24 – 28 April 2017.

For more information visit: www.unicef.org/immunizationweek