አጣዳፊ ተቅማጥና እና ትውከት /አተት/ በሽታን እንከላከል

የአጣዳፊ ተቅማጥና ትውከት በሽታ በተለያዩ በጥቃቅን በዓይን በማይታዩ ተዋህሲያን አማካይነት አማካይነት የሚከሰት በሽታ ሲሆን ከንጽህና መጓደል በተለይም በተህዋሲያን በተበከሉ ምግቦች፣ የመጠጥ ውሃ እና በሌሎች መተላለፊያ መንገዶች ከሰው ወደ ሰው በከፍተኛ ፍጥነት የሚተላለፍ ነዉ፡፡

በሀገራችን ነባራዊ ሁኔታ በአንዳንድ አካባቢዎች የንጹህ መጠጥ ውሃ አቅርቦት በቂ ያለመሆንና በዓለም ላይ በተከሰተዉ የኢሊኖ አየር መዛባት ምክንያት የዉሃ እጥረትና በሌላዉ በኩል የጎርፍ ችግር መኖር እንዲሁም ፣ ከሕብረተሰቡ የአከባቢ፣ የግል፣ የውሃና የምግብ ንጽህና አያያዝና አጠቃቀም ልማድ አለመዳበር ጋር ተያይዞ የተቅማጥ በሽታዎች ስርጭት በየጊዜው እንዲከሰት አስተዋጽዖ አድርጓል፡፡ በተለይም በጎርፍ ምክንያት ምንጮች፣ ወንዞች፣ የውሃ ጉድጓዶች ስለሚበከሉ በአጣዳፊ ተቅማጥና ትውከት የሚያዙ ሰዎች ቁጥር ይጨምራል፡፡

የአተት ምልክቶች ምንድናቸው ?

በበሽታው የተያዘ ሰው በተደጋጋሚ አጣዳፊ ተቅማጥና ትውከት ይኖረዋል፡፡ በዚህም የተነሳ የሰውነት ፈሳሽና ጠቃሚ የሆኑትን ንጥረ ነገሮች መጠን ያዛባል፡፡ በተጨማሪም

  • አጣዳፊ መጠነ ብዙ የሆነ ውኃማ ተቅማጥ
  • ትውከትና ቁርጥማት
  • የአይን መስርጐድ
  • የአፍና የምላስ መድረቅ
  • እንባ አልባ መሆን
  • የሽንት መጠን መቀነስ
  • የቆዳ ድርቀትና መሸብሸብ በመጨረሻም ከፍተኛ የሆነ የሰውነት ድርቀት በማስከተል ህመምተኛው በወቅቱ ካልታከመ ለሞት ሊያበቃው ይችላል፡፡

አጣዳፊ ተቅማጥና ትውከት የሚያስከትለው ችግር ምንድነው ?

በአተት የተያዘ ሰው ከሰውነቱ ብዙ ፈሳሽ ስለሚወጣ በሽተኛው የሰውነት ድርቀት /Dehydration/ ያስከትልበታል፡፡ ይህ ሁኔታ ደግሞ በአተት የተያዘው ሰው በአጭር ጊዜ ራሱን እንዲስት ያደርገዋል፡፡ ከዚህ በተጨማሪ አፋጣኝ የሕክምና ዕርዳታ ካላገኘ በበሽታው የመሞት አጋጣሚው ሃምሳ ከመቶ /5%/ ነው፡፡ ነገር ግን አስፈላጊው የሕክምና ዕርዳታ ከተደረገለት የመሞት አጋጣሚው ከአንድ ከመቶ /1%/ ወይም ከዚያ በታች ማድረግ ይቻላል፡፡

በሽታውን መለያ መንገዶች

1. ምልክቶቹን በማየት

2. በላብራቶሪ ሊረጋገጥ ይችላል፡፡

ህክምናው

  • የወጣውን ፈሳሽ መተካት ዋናውና ቅድሚያ የሚሰጠው ነው
  • እንደ ተዋህሲያኑ አይነት በባለሙያ የሚሰጥ ህክምናን ተግባራዊ ማድረግ

መከላከያና መቆጣጠሪያ መንገዶች

AWD message in Amharic

  • መፀዳጃ ቤት መገንባትና በአግባቡ መጠቀም
  • ምግብን በሚገባ አብስሎ መመገብ
  • በውኃ /መድሃኒት/ በውኃ አጋር/ የታከመ ውሃ ለመጠጥ መጠቀም ወይም ውኃ አፍልቶና አቀዝቅዞ መጠጣት
  • እጅን በውኃና በሳሙና /በአመድ በደንብ አጥርቶ መታጠብ
    • ከመጸዳጃ ቤት መልስ
    • ምግብ ከማዘጋጀት በፊት
    • ምግብ ከማቅረብ በፊት
    • ምግብ ከመመገብ በፊት
    • ሕጻናትን ካጸዳዱ በኋላ
    • ህጻናትን ጢት ከማጥባት በፊት
    • በበሽታዉ የተያዙ ሰዎችን እነክብካቤ ካደረጉ በኃላ

ማንኛውም ከቤት የሚወጣ ደረቅ ወይም ፈሳሽ ቆሻሻ አካባቢን ወይንም ውኃን እንዳይበክል በአግባቡ ማስወገድ፡፡ ምልክቱ የታየበት ህመምተኛ ፈጥኖ ወደ ህክምና ተቋም በመምጣት ሊታከም ይገባል፡፡

ይህንን መሰረት በማድረግ ሁሉም ህብረተሰብ በሽታዉን በመከላከል ዙሪያ የተሰጡ መልእክቶችን በመተግበር እያንዳንዱ ግለሰብ እራሱንና ቤተሰቡን እንዲሁም አካባቢዉን ሊከላከል ይገባል፡፡

UNICEF and religious leaders commit to improve the lives of children and women in Ethiopia

By Hanna Woldemeskel

MoU between UNICEF and major religious institutions for the wellbeing of children and women in Ethiopia
Haji Alfadil Ali Mustafa, General Secretary of the Ethiopian Islamic Affairs Supreme Counsel Signs Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between UNICEF and major religious institutions for the wellbeing of children and women in Ethiopia. ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2016/Sewunet

Addis Ababa, 2 August 2016 – Ethiopia’s Leaders of major religious institutions signed Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with UNICEF marking their joint commitment for sustained promotion of the rights and wellbeing of children, adolescents and women through strategic behaviour and social change interventions. Fourteen signatories signed the MoU, including five major religious denominations along with their respective development offices and four umbrella institutions.

Religion is at the heart of people’s value and identity and religious leaders enormously influence moral values and socialization of children in all aspects of life. Religious institutions reach out to vulnerable and disadvantaged children and families, through their inherent values of humanity and extensive structure reaching up to the family and individual levels.

Evidence shows that if investments are made to build capacity and engage religious institutions, they can create major impact for behaviour and social norm change. For example, in the Somali region, religious leaders massively contributed to stop the 2013 polio outbreak, by informing and encouraging their communities to regularly immunize their children. Religious institutions declaring against harmful traditional practices and their active engagement has a huge impact in accelerating Ethiopia’s commitment towards eliminating the female genital mutilation/cutting and child marriage by 2025.  In Amhara region, for example when priests teach against child marriage, when they refuse to bless such unions, communities are receptive and young girls are given the opportunity to pursue their education and their dreams.

Although religious institutions have been working with UNICEF in the past, their unique opportunity for influencing positive behaviour and social norms was not fully maximized. The core purpose of the MoU, as stated by Gillian Mellsop, UNICEF Representative to Ethiopia, during the signing ceremony is “to build on existing commitments for the wellbeing of children and women in Ethiopia through sustained and long-term behaviour and social change actions with full engagement of the development and spiritual wings and umbrella institutions.” Gillian stressed, “This partnership will accelerate our efforts to alleviate chronic challenges in communities by addressing them at the core – in people’s minds and attitudes”

In their statements, all the signatory religious leaders avowed their commitment to what they called ‘Historic Consensus’  and outlined their respective faith values that create favourable grounds to promote the rights and wellbeing of children and women.

Dr. Abba Hailemariam Melese, the Deputy General Manager of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahdo Church Patriarchate remarked “…towards this cause the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahdo Church is ready to engage over half a million clergies and religious fathers with the joint leadership of our spiritual and development wings.” Similarly, Haji Al – Fadil Ali Mustafa, General Secretary of the Ethiopian Islamic Affairs Supreme Council remarked that developmental partners have become wiser by involving and engaging religious organizations and leaders to work for a common goal.

Reverend Dr. Wakseyoum, Idosa, President of Ethiopian Evangelical Mekane Yesus Church tells the story of a girl he met a week ago who had dropped her studies from eighth grade and came to Addis Ababa fleeing forced marriage, when her relatives insisted that she returns to her village, she refused and opted to go and work in one of the Middle East countries as a house maid. “This story is one of many stories in our communities, and this is why a united effort is needed to reach to the grass roots in order to alleviate the pain that is still fresh and deserve our urgent response.”

In addition to the five major religious denominations of Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (EOTC), Ethiopian Islamic Affairs Supreme Council (EIASC) Ethiopian Catholic Church (ECC), Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus (EECMY) and Ethiopian Kale Hiwot Church (EKHC) and their respective development wings, four umbrella institutions including; Inter-Religious Council of Ethiopia (IRCE),Ethiopian Interfaith Forum for Development Dialogue and Action (EIFDDA),Evangelical Churches Fellowship of Ethiopia (ECFE), and  Consortium of Evangelical Churches of Ethiopia Development Association (CECEDA) forwarded a statement affirming their commitment.

UNICEF and religious institutions sign a Memorandum of Understanding to improve the lives of women and children in Ethiopia

MoU between UNICEF and major religious institutions for the wellbeing of children and women in Ethiopia
Dr Abba Hailemarim Melese, Deputy General Manager of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church Signs Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between UNICEF and major religious institutions for the wellbeing of children and women in Ethiopia © UNICEF Ethiopia/2016/Sewunet

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia, 02 August 2016 – Today, UNICEF and major religious institutions signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to address the issues affecting children, women and the community at large through social and behaviour change, by fully engaging the spiritual wings whose extensive structure reaches families and individuals throughout the country. 

The MoU resulted from continuous joint consultations, since 2014, through identified common ground between the core values of religious institutions, UNICEF’s mandate for children and women, and the need to work towards a major shift of working from a project based partnership to a more sustained and strategic approach to promote the rights and wellbeing of children and women.

At the signing ceremony, Dr Abba Hailemariam Melese, Deputy General Manager of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahdo Church said, “The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahdo Church pledges to take the agreed priorities forward by using its structures and hierarchies lying from the Patriarchate Office up to the parish churches by engaging over half a million clergies and religious fathers through the joint leadership of its spiritual and development wings.” 

Representing the Moslem Religion, Haji Azam Yusuf, Executive Director of the Ethiopian Moslem Development Agency, on his part said, “We sign the MoU today as part of our religious obligation to improve the lives of mothers, children and adolescents to be protected from violence and we promise to work hard towards every issue which is in harmony and does not in any way violate the basic rules and principles of our Religion – Islam. And this time, developmental partners have become wise by involving and engaging religious organizations and leaders to work for a common goal.” 

Abba Hailegabriel Meleku, representing the Ethiopian Catholic Church said, “UNICEF and religious denominations have many common elements concerning the wellbeing of children and women which binds them to work closer.  The Catholic Church affirms that every child has the right to be conceived within a family, through human act, to be born and raised within a stable and responsible family which is fundamental.”

Reverend Dr Wakseuym Idosssa, President of the Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus said, “The problems of harmful traditional practices and social injustices that women and children are facing today are still fresh and deserve our urgent response. In this regard, our congregation and preaching centres, which are over 12,000 in the entire country, will have great role to play in the areas of behavioural change and in building a loving and caring communities for the new generation.”

Currently, in Ethiopia, 3 million children are out of school, 40 per cent of under-five children are malnourished, only 7 per cent of births are formally registered, less than one third of pregnant women deliver in health facilities, vaccination is less than 70 percent coverage, and many girls are exposed to different kinds of harmful traditional practices. Moreover, disease outbreaks like Acute Watery Diarrhoea are affecting many.

“There can never be a more appropriate time for us to join forces, merge our mandate, responsibilities and moral values to enable our communities to build a world fit for children,” said Ms Gillian Mellsop, UNICEF Representative to Ethiopia. “I would like to reiterate UNICEF’s commitment to foster this partnership, as together, we can succeed in improving the lives of children, women and adolescents in Ethiopia. When we work jointly by promoting positive behaviour and social norms to increase demand and the provision of services, we not only bring results but also bring societal shifts, to build communities where children not only survive but thrive,” she added.

Hulluf Woldesilassie, Deputy General Secretary of Inter-Religious Council of Ethiopia said, “Inter-Religious Counsel of Ethiopia has been working on awareness creation and awakening responsibility through its national and regional platform. Through this MoU, we commit to further strengthen our commitment in a more focused and networked approach and make an impact together with other actors.”

The areas of intervention outlined in the MoU include; maternal, neonatal, child and adolescent health, immunization, Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF), hygiene and sanitation promotion, birth registration, Integrated Early Childhood Development and Education (IECDE), girls education, prevention of HIV/AIDS and gender based violence, ending harmful traditional practices including Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) and child marriage.

The partnership is aimed at accelerating the joint efforts to alleviate the chronic challenges in the community by addressing them at the core – in people’s minds and attitudes.

Hereafter, all the signatories will continue to find appropriate platforms for continued discussion and deliberation for evidence based planning and implementation of interventions to benefit women and children.

Since 2014, ART clients in Ethiopia have been getting their CD4 status in 20 minutes

By Tesfaye Simerta

Ayele Feyisa Laboratory technical take sample of blood
Ayele Feyisa Laboratory technician takes sample blood at Chancho health centre, Oromia special zone surrounding Finfinne Sululta woreda, Ethiopia ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2014/Ayene

CHANCHO TOWN, OROMIA REGION, ETHIOPIA, 23 October 2014 – The Chancho Health Centre, 45kms north of Addis Ababa, is where Rediet* goes for her follow-ups, having discovered she was HIV positive back in 2013. Today, there are lots of people waiting alongside Rediet to utilise the laboratory services. Chancho is one of the health centres that the Ethiopian Government – supported by the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI), UNITAID and UNICEF – is using to advance access to Point of Care Technologies (POCT). These provide results on the same day, in order to make HIV testing and treatment more effective, efficient and easier for both health care workers and patients.

Now, Rediet is a mother of a one-year-old baby girl and is still following up on her status regularly.

“Now I have stopped having to wait to hear my CD4 count status at the Fiche Hospital, far from here,” said Rediet, who used to have to travel to Fiche Town to get the test done. “When I went to Fiche, I was paying transport expenses for a round trip, but here it is accessible – about an hour and half walking distance from my home. Previously, when my blood sample was sent to Fiche Hospital, I was not able to know my CD4 count status for a month or more and could not receive treatment. Now that the machine has arrived in the Health Centre, I get my results just after 20 minutes of testing, receive my treatment here and then go home.”

According to Mr Asfaw Referra, Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART) Focal Person at the Chancho Health Centre, there are now around 500 clients using the CD4 count of POCT, of which one in ten are children. “Clients are very happy about this machine, since they can discover their CD4 count status just after 20 minutes,” he told us. “There were clients whose CD4 counts had dropped as low as 93. As they start their ART treatment immediately after we know their CD4 count, however, we are very excited when these people show signs of improvement.”

In addition, before the POCT machine was introduced to the Chancho Health Centre, the number of clients allowed to give blood samples was restricted.

Aduna Lema is one of the many client in Chancho health center“The sample we used to take to Fiche hospital was restricted to between 10 and 15,” Abebe Gelme, Chancho Health Centre Laboratory Technician, informs us. As a result, Chancho Health Centre was forced to transport the samples every week. “Despite the large demand, we appointed only 10 to 15 clients to give their blood sample to our Health Centre up until 9 am every Friday morning, since the collected blood samples had to be taken to Fiche right away.”

Some clients coming from far away could not reach to the Health Centre before 9am and missed their chance. They were then appointed to come back again the following week. Often, they did not get the opportunity to have their blood samples taken and felt helpless.

“I know a client whose CD4 count was found to be eight,” Abebe told us. “Now, thanks to the POCT machine, I can have the data and tell the exact status of my client’s CD4 count with confidence.”

The POCT services are now becoming popular, both at the government level and at the grassroots level.

“The Oromia Regional Health Bureau is committed to working with partners,” Asfaw Endebu, Woreda Health Office Head, told us with great pride. “The woreda cabinet knows about the service provided at this Health Centre and we have recently started introducing it to the Health Workers and Health Extension Workers. We are informed about the availability of the machine, and that is why other HCs and HPOs refer cases to this centre.”

With the support of partners, 45 sites with high patient volume, like Chancho Health Centre, have received POCT machines at the initial stage. This ensures that women, like Rediet, and children in remote areas especially will not have to spend time and resources in order to discover their results. This will remove delays and enable more individuals to receive the treatment they need.

*Name changed to protect identity

Protect the Goal: NO CHILD SHOULD BE BORN WITH HIV/AIDS

Sport has great appeal to young people, who are particularly at risk of HIV infection, and can be an avenue to convey life-saving messages. Sport leagues and matches bring communities together, providing an ideal space for AIDS awareness campaigns on prevention reaching large numbers of people.

Federal Ministry of Health, UNAIDS and UNICEF have developed a Public Service Announcement (PSA) featuring the Ethiopian National Team. The video which conveys the message “ Protect the Goal: NO CHILD SHOULD BE BORN WITH HIV/AIDS” has been aired on Ethiopian National Television (ETV). Waliya’s captain Degu Debeb in the PSA calls on every one “to play a role that no child should be born with HIV/AIDS”.