Simple, Cheap Health Remedies Cut Child Mortality In Ethiopia

Health extension worker Bruktawit Mulu
Health extension worker Bruktawit Mulu ©UNICEF Ethiopia/2013/Ose

By NPR

Poor countries are starting to realize something that richer ones sometimes forget: Basic, inexpensive measures can have dramatic impacts on the health of a country. And they can save thousands of lives.

Take, for instance, the situation in Ethiopia.

The country used to have one of the highest rates of child mortality in the world.

“If you were a kid born in 1990 [in Ethiopia], you had a 1 in 5 chance of not surviving to your fifth birthday,” says Peter Salama, who directs UNICEF’s efforts in Ethiopia.

Since then, the country has improved that survival rate by about 60 percent. “So [Ethiopia has made] a tremendous achievement in the space of two decades,” Salama says.

This progress isn’t a result of expensive international aid or the recruitment of foreign doctors into Ethiopia. Instead, the country has invested in simple, bare-bone clinics scattered around the country, which are run by minimally-educated community health workers.

Foos Muhumed Gudaal is one of 35,000 rural health extension workers in Ethiopia. She practices at a post in the village of Walgo Yar in the eastern part of the country. The clinic is a simple, cement building with only two rooms: one for Gudaal to live in and one that serves as a consultation room. There is no electricity. There are no lights.

Gudaal’s role at the post is a bit like the old image of a small-town pediatrician. But she isn’t even a nurse. Instead, Gudaal, along with all the other health extension workers, has gone through a special, one-year training program.

Her salary also isn’t anywhere near that of a pediatrician. She earns roughly $35 each month.

But Gudaal can still treat the diseases that often cut a child’s life short in Ethiopia. And she can make sure kids in the village are up to date on their vaccines.

One of the main conditions Gudaal deals with is malaria. The parasite kills about 600 million people worldwide each year, and the vast majority of those deaths occur in children under age 5. Gudaal can diagnose and treat most malaria cases at her health post.

She can also easily treat diarrhea and respiratory infections, two other major killers of children in the developing world.

Because there is no electricity at the clinic, Gudaal has to rely on a kerosene-fired refrigerator to keep her vaccines cold. The aging fridge sits in a small shed next to the consultation room.

Gudaal lifts several vaccine vials out of the fridge. She not only administers immunizations, but she also keeps records for who in the village needs shots and boosters.

Since being launched a decade ago, this health extension program in Ethiopia has had a huge effect in the country, Salama says.

Quite simply, it has saved lives. “Children are now treated right across the country on a scale that was previously unheard of around the world,” he says.

“Take acute severe malnutrition, for which Ethiopia was famous in the ’70s and ’80s,” Salama says. “Today, successfully, these same lady health workers treat 300,000 children [each year] for severe malnutrition.” Previously, these children would have most invariably died, he says.

Despite these improvements, Ethiopia still has a long way to go when it comes to children’s health. Malnutrition is still the leading cause of death for children under age 5 in the country. Nearly 20 percent of Ethiopian babies are born underweight, weighing less than 5 1/2 pounds. And about 40 percent of kids don’t reach a normal height because of malnutrition.

But, Salama says, the beauty of Ethiopia’s health extension program is that it’s sustainable. It’s run by the government, not a foreign foundation or agency. So as long as there’s the political will, it’s able to reach kids across the country.

Original Story http://www.wbur.org/npr/255448192/simple-cheap-health-remedies-cut-child-mortality-in-ethiopia 

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In Ethiopia, DFATD support improves community based child and maternal care

By Frehiwot Yilma

Paul Rochon thanks Misa Wondimagen, 25, Health Extension WorkerDERA DISTRICT: AMHARA REGION, 30 October, 2013 – It is early Thursday morning and Gibtsawit Health Post, found in a rural village of Gibtsawit Mariam located 42 kilometres from Bahirdar, is busy with patients. The small room is crowded with mothers who are there to check their babies’ growth; pregnant women having their antenatal care and men and women of the community who are receiving malaria treatment.  Today is a special day, because the health extension workers of the health post are welcoming Mr Paul Rochon, Deputy Minister of International Development, Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD) and Dr Peter Salama, UNICEF Representative to Ethiopia.

Misa Wondimagegn, a 25 year old health extension worker, supports the community in Gibtsawit village of Dera district with curative and preventative health and nutrition services.  Misa and her colleagues Meseret and Hagere are supported by the health development army (a network of one volunteer to five Households) attend the 13,366 population of the kebele.

Misa has been working at Gibtsawit Health Post for seven years. “It was just when I finished tenth grade that I had the opportunity to join the training for health extension workers. It was hard convincing people to allow me to monitor the growth of their baby and take my advice about what to feed their children,” she says.  “We travelled long distances to reach as many households in the village as possible.  In each of our visit we tried to improve the health seeking behaviour of the community and eventually encouraged them to go to the health post.”

Growth Monitoring and Promotion is the cornerstone in the Community Based Nutrition Programme.  It creates a platform for the health extension workers to contact the caregivers and check the nutritional status of children, detect growth faltering at early stage and provide counselling on Infant and Young Child Feeding practices (IYCF).

“Now, the situation has changed a lot: we have mothers who bring their children for check-up and pregnant women who come for antenatal care. The support we get from UNICEF and the Canadian Government has increased the variety of treatments we provide for the community. We have outpatient treatment for children diagnosed with severe acute malnutrition and for pregnant women we give antenatal care and supply iron –folate. We promote good Hygiene and sanitation and we also give treatment for common childhood illnesses like pneumonia malaria and diarrhoea for the community,” Misa explains with smile on her face.

Support in Action

Haimanot Andarge, 20, and her daughter Azeb Abraru, 23 month, relax at home in Dera Woreda in Amhara region of Ethiopia

Since 2007, the Canadian Government has been supporting UNICEF Ethiopia’s interventions in Child Survival with Vitamin A and Zinc Supplementation and Integrated Health System Strengthening as well as routine immunization. Dera is one of the 100 UNICEF supported districts implementing the preventive and curative nutrition interventions. It is implementing Community Based Nutrition (CBN), integrated with other Community Maternal New-born and Child Health Interventions (CMNCH) to prevent child malnutrition, focusing on the first 1000 days: the time between conception and when a child turns two years of age.

In August 2013, 1,247 children attended the monthly Growth Monitoring and Promotion session in Dera enabling Misa and the other 78 health extension workers in the district to identify nutritional status of the children, detect early growth faltering, help the caregivers visualize the status and counsel them on appropriate age specific feeding messages using the Family Health Card as a counselling aid and refer children for further care in a timely manner whenever needed.

Haimanot Andarge, a 20 year old mother of baby girl Azeb, is one of the many mothers in the district who got follow ups from Misa and her colleagues during their pregnancy. “Misa used to come to my house regularly ever since she knew I was pregnant. She gave me vaccines and other supplements which was important for my baby. And when my labour began my husband took me to the health post. Misa encouraged me to deliver at Hamusit Health Centre which referred me to Bahirdar Hospital in time as my delivery was complicated. My baby was delivered safely because the health post was in our village to identify my condition,” Haimanot remembered. Her eyes reflect her fear of what might have happened. “ Azeb, is going to be two this year and  Misa still follows up on her  regularly and gives me advice on what to feed her,” adds Haimanot.

Integrating approaches to combat malnutrition

Holding Plumpy'Nut produced in Ethiopia, Misa Wondimagen, 25, Health Extension WorkerOne of the challenges to the health extension workers was what kind of advice to give to families with low income, regarding additional food for their children. “Health Extension Workers usually explain to families to use variety of cereals, animal protein and vegetables. Those who have money would buy and others barter with what they have produced,” explains Ato Worku Endale, Head of the Dera District Health Office. “Recently we have been integrating the health extension programme with the agriculture extension programme to support farmers on what to produce and how they can support their children and family with variety of food items. In addition, the safety net programme that has been implemented in this particular community allows families with low income to be involved in the income generating activities.”

With the integrated multisectoral approach of the government of Ethiopia and the support of UNICEF and partners such as DFATD, the hard work of health extension workers like Misa and colleagues is paying off.

Revolutionizing treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM)

The support from UNICEF and the Canada Government that started the preventive nutrition programme of Community Based Nutrition linked with provision of WASH facilities has helped reduce the number of children who are malnourished.  According to Dr. Peter Salama, the collaborative work of all stake holders, the availability of treating health posts within the community have made saving a child easier than ever before.

At the end of the visit the team eagerly waits to hear from Misa and her colleagues on their response to the fundamental question of how many children were lost to malnutrition recently.  “There were 27 children diagnosed with Severe Acute malnutrition in July 2012- August 2013. They were treated with the Out-patient Therapeutic Programme (OTP) and 20 have been cured and seven are still on follow up with good prognosis but we have not lost a single child,” Misa explained boastfully.
Group Photo: Joint visit of UNICEF and DFTAD

“It was not easy to change the attitude of the community. When we started, there was no one before us working with the community reaching every  household door to door. We started from nothing. But with the support of donors like  UNICEF and the Canadian Government, I cannot even remember the last time a child died in the community for the last four years,” Misa reminisces.

“It makes me realise that it was not for nothing that I worked so hard at the beginning. I have brought change in my community.” Misa concludes.

Ethiopia to second health professionals, experts and health professionals to Namibia

The Namibian government on Wednesday signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Ethiopia whereby both parties agreed on the possibility for Ethiopia to second health professionals, experts and health professionals to Namibia.

Health extension worker Bruktawit Mulu

In terms of the MoU Ethiopia has committed to continue providing scholarships to a specified number of Namibian students to go and study in that country. The two countries further agreed on a training programme for Namibian health professionals, including doctors, registered nurses, health technicians, pharmacists, paramedics and others. During the signing ceremony the Minister of Health and Social Services, Dr Richard Kamwi, once again reiterated that Namibia faces a critical shortage of health professionals and stressed the fact that the ministry finds it difficult to attract and retain health professionals in rural areas.

Early in March Cabinet decided that the health extension programme should be introduced in all regions. Shortly thereafter the Ethiopian ministry of health assisted Namibia to pilot the health extension workers programme in the Kunene Region through which about 40 Namibians were trained. The health extension programme was then rolled out to the Zambezi, Kavango East and Kavango West, Ohangwena, Omusati and Kunene regions where a total of 565 health extension workers are currently undergoing training. The health extension workers act as a bridge between the community and public health care clinics.

They also promote health and educate people on how to prevent diseases in communities, as well as promote immunisation and carry out maternal and child health assessments. Moreover, the Ethiopian Minister of Health, Dr Kesetebirhan Admasu revealed that his country made a significant effort to improve health delivery. Admasu said Ethiopia has already achieved targets on combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases and also reduced its under-five mortality rate by two thirds between 1990 and 2012, thereby meeting the target set under the Millennium Development Goals. Read more